UN Climate Change Conference Doha 2012: Facts And Way Forward

Nov 20th, 2012 | By | Category: Adaptation, Advocacy, Capacity Development, Climatic Changes in Himalayas, Development and Climate Change, Events, Global Warming, Governance, Green House Gas Emissions, Health and Climate Change, Information and Communication, International Agencies, Mitigation, News, Opinion, Resilience, UNFCC-CoP18, UNFCCC, Upcoming Events, Vulnerability, Weather

DAILY UPDATES ON: The 2012 United Nations Climate Change Conference : COP18/CMP8 DOHA QATAR

Overview – Doha’s largest ever conference

  • About 17,000 people (delegates and visitors) will attend COP18/CMP8 – making it Doha’s largest ever conference.
  • Delegates from 194 nations will be present.
  • There will be about 1,500 journalists from Qatar, the region and the world, including at least 100 TV stations.
  • We expect more than 7,000 members of non-governmental organisations.
  • More than 2,000 residents of Qatar have volunteered to help.

Conference website:http://www.cop18.qa/en-us/homepage.aspx

Meeting Website of UN: http://unfccc.int/meetings/doha_nov_2012/meeting/6815.php

Download Schedule:Overview_Schedule_CoP18-CMP8

News Updates: http://www.cop18.qa/en-us/news.aspx

Twitter:http://www.twitter.com/COP18CMP8

Youtube:http://www.youtube.com/user/COP18CMP8Doha

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Climate Himalaya’s Link For UPDATES Of CoP18

http://chimalaya.org/category/resources/events/cop18/

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Highlights Of CoP18/CMP8

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Decisions adopted by COP 18 and CMP 8

Decisions adopted by COP 18 and CMP 8

COP 18 CMP 8
pdf-icon Agreed outcome pursuant to the Bali Action Plan (216 kB) Amendment to the Kyoto Protocol pursuant to its Article 3, paragraph 9
pdf-icon Advancing the Durban Platform (63 kB) pdf-icon Addressing the Implications of decisions -2/CMP.7 to -5/CMP.7 on the previous decisions on methodological issues related to the Kyoto Protocol including those relating to Articles 5, 7 and 8 of the Kyoto Protocol
pdf-icon Work programme on long-term finance (22 kB) pdf-icon Report of the Adaptation Fund Board (98 kB)
pdf-icon Report of the Standing Committee on Finance (64 kB) pdf-icon Initial review of the Adaptation Fund (105 kB)
pdf-icon Report of the Green Climate Fund (76 kB) pdf-icon Guidance relating to the clean development mechanism (105 kB)
pdf-icon Arrangements between the COP and the Green Climate Fund (18 kB) pdf-icon Guidance relating to joint implementation (77 kB)
pdf-icon Review of the financial mechanism (20 kB) pdf-icon Supplementary information incorporated in national communications from Parties included in Annex I to the Convention that are also Parties to the Kyoto Protocol and submitted in accordance with Article 7, paragraph 2, of the Kyoto Protocol (90 kB)
pdf-icon Report of the GEF and additional guidance to the GEF (24 kB) pdf-icon Methodology for the collection of international transaction log fees in the biennium 2014-2015 (96 kB)
pdf-icon Further guidance to the Least Developed Countries Fund (97 kB) pdf-icon Proposal from Kazakhstan to amend Annex B to the Kyoto Protocol (20 kB)
pdf-icon Work of the Adaptation Committee (21 kB) pdf-icon Capacity-building under the Kyoto Protocol for developing countries (92 kB)
pdf-icon Approaches to address loss and damage associated with climate change impacts in developing countries that are particularly vulnerable to the adverse effects of climate change to enhance adaptive capacity (219 kB) pdf-icon Capacity-building under the Kyoto Protocol for countries with economies in transition (27 kB)
pdf-icon National Adaptation Plans (97 kB) pdf-icon Report of the Compliance Committee (96 kB)
pdf-icon Report of the Technology Executive Committee (90 kB) pdf-icon Administrative, financial and institutional matters (104 kB)
pdf-icon Arrangements to make the Climate Technology Centre and Network fully operational (157 kB)
pdf-icon Doha work programme on Article 6 of the Convention (157 kB)
pdf-icon Prototype of the registry (100 kB)
pdf-icon Composition, modalities and procedures of the team of technical experts under international consultations and analysis (125 kB)
pdf-icon Work of the Consultative Group of Experts on National Communications from Parties not included in Annex I to the Convention (134 kB)
pdf-icon Common tabular format for the “UNFCCC biennial reporting guidelines for developed country Parties” (CTF) (348 kB)
pdf-icon Fifth national communications from Parties included in Annex I to the Convention (88 kB)
pdf-icon Capacity-building under the Convention for countries with economies in transition (31 kB)
pdf-icon Activities implemented jointly under the pilot phase (21 kB)
pdf-icon Promoting gender balance and improving the participation of women in UNFCCC negotiations and in the representation of Parties in bodies established pursuant to the Convention or the Kyoto Protocol (103 kB)
pdf-icon Draft decision on economic diversification initiative (61 kB)
pdf-icon Administrative, financial and institutional matters (118 kB)
pdf-icon Dates and venues of future sessions (105 kB)
Resolution adopted by COP 18 and CMP 8
pdf-icon Expression of gratitude to the Government of the State of Qatar and the people of the city of Doha (94 kB)

 

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DAY-XI: Thursday, 6 December 2012

[Source: IISD Reporting]

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In the morning, the AWG-KP held its closing plenary. Throughout the day on Thursday, the COP 18 and CMP 8 high-level segment took place. Various contact groups and informal consultations also convened under the COP, CMP, ADP, AWG-LCA and AWG-KP. In the evening, the COP President’s INFORMAL STOCKTAKING PLENARY WAS HELD.

STOCKTAKING PLENARY

During the evening’s informal stocktaking plenary, AWG-KP Chair Diouf reported that the AWG-KP concluded its work on Thursday morning.

AWG-LCA Chair Tayeb reported good progress on all elements, while indicating that there are areas that require streamlining. He expressed hope that all elements would be brought together in one document “by some time tonight.”

ADP Co-Chair Dovland reported on informal consultations on the revised co-chairs’ proposal for a draft decision and draft conclusions. He observed that parties’ focus on the AWG-KP and AWG-LCA prevented the ADP from holding a closing plenary Thursday afternoon. He expressed confidence that the ADP will send a strong signal that it is on track to reaching an agreement by 2015 and to addressing the pre-2020 ambition gap.

Luis Figueiredo Machado (Brazil) reported on his ministerial outreach with Bård Solhjell (Norway) on outstanding issues concerning the AWG-KP and its outcome document (FCCC/KP/AWG/2012/L.3). He noted their intention to continue consultations with several groups.

Mariyam Shakeela (Maldives) reported that, with Bruno Oberle (Switzerland), she had consulted with various regional groups on finance and held an informal session with parties. She said parties had been invited to provide textual input and that a draft text was under preparation.

Mark Dreyfus (Australia) and Fatou Gaye (the Gambia) reported that parties are closer to an agreement on reporting guidelines.

Edna Molewa (South Africa) reported on informal ministerial consultations on loss and damage. She said that the main political issue revolves around the potential establishment of an institutional arrangement, such as a mechanism.

Maria del Socorro Flores (Mexico) reported progress on informal consultations on the composition of the CTCN Advisory Board, expressing hope that parties will reach agreement by Friday.

Algeria, for the G-77/CHINA, highlighted three main pillars of a Doha outcome: an ambitious second commitment period that would allow for a higher level of ambition from all Annex I parties; finance under the AWG-LCA; and a balanced treatment of all elements under the ADP.

Swaziland, for the AFRICAN GROUP, called for text addressing the full set of issues in the Bali Action Plan, and for a second commitment period that enables scaling up ambition before 2014. Noting that parties may not achieve all they hoped for, Switzerland, for the EIG, called for: a solution to the carry-over of surplus AAUs that ensures the environmental integrity of the second commitment period; building on lessons learned from fast-start finance; and developing a path for finance for 2020.

Supporting further ministerial engagement, Australia, for the UMBRELLA GROUP, urged agreement on access to market mechanisms during the second commitment period, and called for concluding discussions under the AWG-LCA, acknowledging achievements and moving towards implementation.

Underscoring environmental integrity, Nauru, for AOSIS, stated that AOSIS  “has not lost faith,” but will continue working to ensure that “we leave with something better than what we came with.”

The EU underscored the need to speed up the conclusion of the AWG-LCA and supported the COP President’s call for the AWG-LCA Chair to finish the group’s work on Thurday night. The Gambia, for the LDCs, underlined the importance of a second commitment period that ensures environmental integrity, takes account of the rules-based regime and limits access to the flexibility mechanisms to Annex I parties with commitments. Chile, for AILAC, expressed his confidence that parties would “deliver the milestone of a legally-binding agreement by 2015.”

Observing that the “pieces of the package are coming together,” COP President Al-Attiyah called on delegates to increase their efforts to find common ground and for ministers to complete their work on Thursday night, in order to present clear political choices by Friday. He said an informal stocktaking meeting will convene on Friday.

AWG-KP CLOSING PLENARY

On Thursday morning, AWG-KP Chair Diouf reported that work had been undertaken until the early hours of Thursday morning to streamline her proposal to facilitate negotiations under the AWG-KP (FCCC/KP/AWG/2012/CRP.3). She explained that the results of this work, which aim to provide ministers with clear options, had been incorporated in her draft conclusion text on the outcome of the work of the AWG-KP (FCCC/KP/AWG/2012/L.3), which she proposed to forward to the CMP for adoption.

Algeria, for the G-77/CHINA, highlighted outstanding issues, including operationalization of an ambitious second commitment period under the Kyoto Protocol beginning on 1 January 2013, and commitment by Annex I parties to ambitious QELROs. With the Gambia, for the LDCs, he called for a decision to restrict access to the flexibility mechanisms to those Annex I parties that take on commitments under the second commitment period. The LDCs further supported an ambitious five-year second commitment period with provisional application.

Swaziland, for the AFRICAN GROUP, expressed hope that ministers will be able to take the necessary political decisions. He said the second commitment period should: exclude the carry-over of surplus AAUs; enable only parties with second commitment period QELROs to participate in the flexibility mechanisms; and include a mechanism for increasing mitigation ambition within two years of the start of the commitment period.

The EU underscored that the text before parties shows that the AWG-KP will contribute to the balanced outcome Doha is expected to deliver. He identified the need to secure uninterrupted access to market mechanisms for all parties who will take on commitments during the second commitment period, noting that the current text addresses this concern. On the possibility of Annex B parties strengthening their QELROs during the second commitment period, the EU indicated willingness to explore the ambition mechanism proposed by the G-77/China. He recognized the importance of the issue of carry-over of surplus AAUs, but noted that there will be minimal demand for such AAUs between 2013 and 2020.

Australia, for several UMBRELLA GROUP members, noted convergence on many issues and highlighted key elements that require agreement, including an eight-year second commitment period and expanded participation in market mechanisms. He underlined that the AWG-KP is “part of a much broader, shared endeavor.”

The PHILIPPINES drew attention to the Bopha typhoon afflicting his country. He appealed to parties to “open their eyes to the stark reality we face” in order to “let this be the year we found the courage to take responsibility for the future we want,” and asked delegates: “If not us, then who? If not now, then when? If not here, then where?”

Switzerland, for the EIG, said adopting the Protocol amendments in Doha will ensure a seamless transition to the second commitment period. He stressed the need to: ensure environmental integrity of the second commitment period through the limitation of carry-over of surplus AAUs from the first commitment period; and allow those Annex I parties that will not take on QELROs to participate in the CDM. He expressed solidarity with the people of the Philippines, as did BOLIVIA, who stated that the current situation in that country is “a testimony of what can be expected to take place more frequently.” BOLIVIA cautioned against “empty promises” and described the low level of ambition as a “death sentence” to some people. He opposed the idea of voluntary commitments, saying that since developed countries have not managed to raise the level of ambition in seven years, “why should they be believed now.”

Saint Lucia, for AOSIS, called for, inter alia: a five-year commitment period; Annex I parties moving to the top end of their pledges and beyond, and dropping their conditionalities; provisional application of the Protocol amendments to be adopted in Doha; and limiting participation in the flexibility mechanisms to Annex I parties with commitments under the second commitment period. She noted that the G-77/China’s proposal on the ambition mechanism is missing from the AWG-KP text, underlining her view that this proposal “remains on the table,” and stressed that the mechanism must “bear fruit” by 2014 at the latest.

AWG-KP Chair Diouf proposed forwarding the report on the AWG-KP’s work to the CMP. AOSIS requested bracketing parts of the text, including sections containing: the amended Protocol Annex B with parties’ mitigation commitments; text on eligibility to participate in the flexibility mechanisms; and text on the fulfillment of the AWG-KP’s mandate and conclusion of its work. Parties agreed to forward the outcome of the work of the AWG-KP (FCCC/KP/AWG/2012/L.3), as orally amended by AOSIS, to the CMP for consideration and finalization.

Chair Diouf recalled earlier agreement to form a group that will conduct a legal review of the text forwarded to the CMP, saying the review will not reopen any substantive discussions. She said the group will comprise members from all regional groups and SIDS, and explained that she would report to the CMP President if any changes are required based on the findings of the legal review.

The AWG-KP adopted its report (FCCC/KP/AWG/2012/L.2) and Chair Diouf closed the session at 12:24pm.

COP

HIGH-LEVEL SEGMENT:  The COP 18 and CMP 8 high-level segment continued with statements from ministers and other heads of delegation. A webcast of the statements is available at: http://unfccc.int/meetings/doha_nov_2012/meeting/6815/php/view/webcasts.php.

IN THE CORRIDORS

Emerging from what most likely was the AWG-KP’s “ultimate closing plenary,” some confessed to feeling nostalgic. However, for many, this sentiment was combined with deep frustration that there was no celebration at the end of the AWG-KP, just bracketed text and options to forward to the ministers. Many also commented on the touching AWG-KP intervention by the delegate from the Philippines who emotionally implored delegates to “open their eyes to the stark reality we face,” informing delegates that typhoon Bopha has regained strength and is approaching another part of the Philippines.

Meanwhile, negotiations continued under the AWG-LCA, with finance as one of the key pieces of its complex puzzle. The question was subject to informal ministerial consultations that lasted most of Thursday. Despite the “intense” consultations, as one party put it, as of late evening, some parties were still unclear about what the outcome would be, but one fatigued delegate said he was “still earnestly hoping for the best.” Efforts to advance under the AWG-LCA meant that the ADP closing plenary, originally scheduled for Thursday afternoon, was postponed until Friday.

The evening stocktaking plenary saw a climate skeptic hijack a party’s microphone and request a review of climate science. His statement was greeted by loud boos from the room and many delegates were outraged afterwards, expressing hope that he will be “debadged” and banned from the COP. This strong reaction prompted one delegate to note that, “even though we have a long way to go before we’re able to say that we’ve avoided dangerous climate change, based on everyone’s reaction, we all seem to at least agree that climate change is a problem to be taken seriously.”

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DAY-X: Wednesday, 5 December 2012

[Source: IISD Reporting]

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Throughout the day on Wednesday, the COP 18 and CMP 8 high-level segment took place. Various contact groups and informal consultations also convened under the COP, CMP, ADP, AWG-LCA and AWG-KP. In the evening, the COP President’s informal stocktaking plenary was held.

COP PRESIDENT’S INFORMAL STOCKTAKING PLENARY

During the evening informal stocktaking plenary, COP 18 President Al-Attiyah urged the facilitators to conclude the few outstanding issues.

SBSTA Chair Muyungi reported that concerning the work programme on a common tabular format for the UNFCCC biennial reporting guidelines for developed countries, agreement has been reached on the tables, but not on the use of biennial reporting guidelines outside the Convention. He further reported that no agreement has been reached on response measures. Chair Muyungi also reported that it had not been possible to advance work on the TEC report and that the “very political issue of IPRs” had not been resolved through bilateral consultations by the SBI Chair.

SBI Chair Chruszczow reported agreement on a draft COP decision on national adaptation plans. He explained that parties have been unable to agree on the composition, modalities and procedures for the team of technical experts under international consultations and analysis, and recommended that the item be moved to the next SBI session.

On the Consultative Group of Experts (CGE), he reported that, to avoid a gap, the CGE’s mandate has been extended by one year. On loss and damage, Chair Chruszczow reported that parties have managed to remove brackets from the text and that the text will be forwarded for ministerial consultations. On the CTCN, he reported one unresolved issue relating to the composition of the CTCN Advisory Board and recommended forwarding it to the ministers.

AWG-KP Chair Diouf reported on efforts to streamline text, noting proposals that consolidate previous options and suggest compromise options. She said a revised text with clear options for ministerial consideration would be issued later on Wednesday evening and considered in a contact group. She indicated that the closing plenary of the AWG-KP would take place “late at night.”

AWG-LCA Chair Tayeb said parties received different texts that capture the status of discussion under each AWG-LCA agenda item with a view to providing parties with a complete overview of the state of discussions. He explained that the AWG-LCA will continue to work through a single informal group throughout the evening with a view to making progress towards a more streamlined text by Thursday.

ADP Co-Chair Mauskar reported that he and Co-Chair Dovland have prepared draft ADP conclusions and a draft COP decision. He stated that the informal meeting scheduled for Wednesday was postponed at the request of a group of countries and expressed his understanding that the two AWGs scheduled to close in Doha need priority, noting that the ADP “has its own importance.”

Bard Solhjell (Norway) provided an update on progress following ministerial outreach that he had conducted with Luis Machado Figueiredo (Brazil), on: access to the flexibility mechanisms by Annex I parties that will not be taking on commitments in the second commitment period; and extending the share of proceeds to joint implementation and emissions trading. He noted that, after consultations, a “good picture” was emerging on different opinions, although there were “no final solutions.”

Observing that some issues continue to be difficult, COP President Al-Attiyah noted that those requiring ministerial outreach have been identified, and Mariyam Shakeela (Maldives) and Bruno Oberley (Switzerland) had been appointed to assist in ministerial outreach on finance issues. He said that ministerial outreach would not duplicate the work under AWG-LCA and COP finance contact group discussions.

In addition, Fatou Gaye (the Gambia) and Mark Dreyfus (Australia) will consult informally on reporting guidelines; Edna Molewa (South Africa) will facilitate informal consultations on loss and damage; Maria del Socorro (Mexico) will consult on the composition of the CTCN advisory board; and Figueiredo and Solhjell will consult on reporting by non-Kyoto Protocol parties and facilitate resolution of any outstanding issues on item 4 of the CMP agenda (AWG-KP report), as the need arises.

COP President Al-Attiyah encouraged parties “to be bold in their thinking to address the global threat of climate change and increase efforts to find common ground and solutions.”

COP

HIGH-LEVEL SEGMENT: The COP 18 and CMP 8 high-level segment continued with statements from ministers, other heads of delegations and speakers on behalf of groups. A webcast of the statements is available at: http://unfccc.int/meetings/doha_nov_2012/meeting/6815/php/view/webcasts.php.

CONTACT GROUP ON FINANCE: In the afternoon COP contact group on finance, Co-Chairs Djemouai and Andrews provided an update of progress, noting efforts being made to harmonize the group’s work with finance discussions under the AWG-LCA.

On the work programme on long-term finance, Co-Chair Andrews explained that the draft text proposes extending the work programme and convening a ministerial dialogue to discuss the scaling up of finance. Revised text is being drafted.

On the Standing Committee report, it was noted that parties were close to a decision and were consulting on the remaining brackets.

Regarding the Green Climate Fund (GCF) report and initial guidance, delegates were informed that draft text takes note of the GCF report and progress towards operationalizing the Fund, and that “informal informals” are convening to finalize the text.

AWG-KP

NUMBERS/TEXT: During the morning spin-off group on numbers/text, parties focused on drafting clear options for inclusion in the AWG-KP Chair’s revised text that will be forwarded to ministers for consideration.

Parties considered text on Protocol amendments, eligibility to participate in the flexibility mechanisms, carry-over of surplus AAUs, and the share of proceeds. Parties had before them new proposals on some of these issues, as well as text consolidating previous proposals. Parties agreed on which proposals should be forwarded to the AWG-KP Chair for inclusion in her revised text, and the spin-off group concluded its work.

AWG-LCA

AGREED OUTCOME: During afternoon informal consultations that were open to observers, AWG-LCA Chair Tayeb reported that some issues are “close to conclusion,” while others are “moving in circles” or “even backwards.” He also noted that ministers from the Maldives and Switzerland had agreed to facilitate informal consultations on the continuity of finance in the 2013-2020 period.

Algeria, for the G-77/CHINA, proposed closing all the spin-off groups under the AWG-LCA and called for a “central forum” to help parties understand the status of negotiations. He also called for prioritizing finance.

The PHILIPPINES, BANGLADESH and others emphasized the need for consultations on finance to be open, inclusive and transparent. Swaziland, for the AFRICAN GROUP, called for a decision on finance, scaling up mitigation and support for adaptation. SWITZERLAND said financing is a “core and ongoing issue” that cannot be concluded in Doha, and that a COP decision is needed to define how to continue working on it. The EU expressed disappointment over the lack of progress on, among other issues, shared vision and various approaches. She called for consensus text with clear options for ministers.

The Gambia, for the LDCs, urged for a “balanced text” that would be the basis for further negotiations. BOLIVIA expressed concern over the lack of balance in the texts, underscoring the need for further reflecting non-market approaches in text on various approaches and REDD+. Highlighting the relevance of interlinkages, VENEZUELA suggested considering various approaches together with other interlinked issues under the AWG-KP and CMP, such as CDM continuation. Egypt, for the ARAB GROUP, supported by CHINA, encouraged the AWG-LCA Chair to prepare a revised text. INDIA and ARGENTINA noted that text on response measures did not adequately reflect parties’ submissions.

Colombia, for the ASSOCIATION OF INDEPENDENT LATIN AMERICAN AND CARIBBEAN STATES (AILAC), called for an open “Indaba” on finance, saying that ministerial bilateral meetings will not suffice. Noting lack of progress, she supported discussing adaptation and REDD+ issues at a higher level.

Many parties queried the working methodology and status of the texts presented, with many calling for predictability concerning the issues that will be addressed, and meeting times. AWG-LCA Chair Tayeb clarified that negotiations on the AWG-LCA agreed outcome will continue in a single open-ended group and that in those areas where progress was still within reach, such as developed and developing country mitigation and REDD+, break-out groups will meet again.

IN THE CORRIDORS

As negotiators were going about their business in an attempt to achieve a successful outcome for Friday, high-level discussions also continued both during informal ministerial roundtables and “behind-the-scenes” consultations. The COP President’s informal stocktaking plenary in the evening provided an overview of “informal ministerial outreach” on key issues. UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon also reportedly met with many of the key players and, in his ministerial roundtable speech, announced plans to convene a meeting of world leaders in 2014 to help build political momentum for 2015 when parties are scheduled to conclude negotiations under the ADP. Noting that this kind of high-level engagement helped achieve what many considered successful outcomes in Cancun and Durban, one experienced negotiator opined: “I really hope our ministers can step in and once again save the day.” Some in the corridors commented on the “evident urgency” of the task, given the news of deaths and destruction caused by typhoon Bopha raging in the Philippines.

Regarding progress under the three working groups, delegates from the G-77/China requested postponing meetings scheduled under the ADP, ostensibly to attend the AWG-LCA informal consultations taking place at the same time. Thus, work under the ADP made way for informal consultations under the AWG-LCA, which continued for the second night in a row.

The mood in the corridors late in the evening was a mixture of suppressed anticipation and depression, as tired-looking delegates passed the time, constantly scanning the live meeting schedule as the AWG-KP contact group and closing plenary, initially scheduled for the evening, were subsequently postponed until midnight. “I hope we will not be here until morning,” commented one delegate, adding: “Otherwise I will be spending the third night in a row in my delegation’s office.” Relief was palpable when the closing plenary was eventually postponed to the more manageable time of 11:00am on Thursday.

 

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DAY-IX: Tuesday, 4 December 2012

[Source: IISD Reporting]

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On Tuesday afternoon, the opening ceremony of the COP 18 and CMP 8 high-level segment took place. In the morning, afternoon and evening, contact groups and informal consultations convened under the COP, CMP, ADP, AWG-LCA and AWG-KP.

OPENING CEREMONY OF THE COP 18 AND CMP 8 HIGH-LEVEL SEGMENT

In the afternoon, the opening of the COP 18 and CMP 8 high-level segment took place.

UNFCCC Executive Secretary Figueres underscored that Doha needs to ensure: agreement on an amendment to the Kyoto Protocol; a clear path on climate finance; effective Review of the long-term global goal; an urgent response to the widening emissions gap; and a firm foundation for a long-term framework applicable to all, equitably instituted and responsive to science.

COP 18/CMP 8 President Al-Attiyah: urged parties to work together towards mutual understanding and to ensure a balanced package, highlighting climate change as one of the most pressing challenges of our time.

Vuk Jeremić, President of the UN General Assembly, stated that addressing climate change must become a “core national interest” of every UN member state. He outlined plans to schedule a high-level thematic debate on climate change, green energy and water sustainability during the resumed 67th session of the UN General Assembly.

UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon underscored that there should be no illusion that this is a crisis. He outlined five deliverables from Doha: adopting a ratifiable second commitment period under the Kyoto Protocol; making progress on long-term climate finance; working to fully equip institutions supporting mitigation and adaptation by developing countries; keeping negotiations on a legally-binding instrument on track; and showing determination to act on the gap between the current mitigation pledges and what is required to achieve the 2°C target.

H.H. Sabah IV Al-Ahmad Al-Jaber Al-Sabah, Emir of Kuwait, noted that the sizeable high-level participation in the conference reflects recognition by the international community of climate change as a pressing issue. He called for decisions to pave the way for long-term cooperation through: ensuring the effective implementation of the Bali Action Plan and all its elements; adopting a second commitment period under the Kyoto Protocol; not imposing new commitments on developing countries; and backing voluntary actions by developing countries with finance and technology transfer from developed countries.

H.H. Sheikh Hamad Bin Khalifa Al-Thani, Emir of Qatar, called for: epitomizing the concept of interdependence; reaching a practical and effective agreement with flexible solutions; and finding an equilibrium between the needs of countries and communities for energy on the one hand, and the requirements to reduce greenhouse gas emissions on the other hand.

The high-level segment then continued with statements from other heads of state and heads of government, deputy heads of state and deputy heads of government, ministers and other heads of delegations. A webcast of the statements is available at: http://unfccc.int/meetings/doha_nov_2012/meeting/6815/php/view/webcasts.php

ADP

ROUNDTABLE ON WORKSTREAM 2: In the morning ADP roundtable on workstream 2, Nauru, for AOSIS, presented draft decision text on “enhancing pre-2020 mitigation ambition,” highlighting that it provides a detailed ADP work plan for 2013. The text, inter alia, underscores an urgency to close the existing mitigation gap, and proposes holding multiple workshops throughout 2013 on several thematic areas. It also invites parties to submit proposals on: measures to enhance pre-2020 mitigation ambition; quantification of such measures; GHG reduction potential; barriers to implementation; and the finance, technology and capacity building required for implementation.

Several parties welcomed the AOSIS text as a helpful proposal to move discussions forward. The DOMINICAN REPUBLIC remarked that being too specific in terms of planning work could mean sacrificing flexibility, while being too vague could mean “not having guidance for our work.” He noted an interactive relationship between ambition and means of implementation.

UGANDA called for discussions focusing on adaptation and means of implementation. BRAZIL supported the AOSIS text but cautioned that too many details may lead to inefficiencies. He emphasized the means of implementation as critical for both developing and developed countries, stressed the “enormous potential” of subnational initiatives, and encouraged involving other stakeholders in the ADP’s work.

NORWAY encouraged: continuing positive dynamics; sharing experiences; understanding conditionalities better; bringing more parties on board; considering the mitigation potential of REDD+, hydrofluorocarbons and black carbon; and removing harmful fossil fuel subsidies. NEW ZEALAND stated that ambition is being hampered by “an environment of finger pointing – you should, you must, you ought to.”

The MARSHALL ISLANDS urged consideration of mitigation potential underlying targets and pledges, and stressed that a thematic approach has much higher mitigation potential than international cooperative initiatives.

INFORMAL CONSULTATIONS: After the roundtable, the ADP held informal consultations in the morning and evening on the AOSIS proposal, and on revised draft text by the ADP co-chairs, which seeks to reflect the interventions and submissions made by parties in 2012.

Several parties said the co-chairs’ text could be strengthened and noted the loss of detail concerning future work and themes, calling for references to issues including: international cooperative initiatives; raising pledges; Annex I countries’ leadership obligation; adaptation, means of implementation and broad elements of the Bali Action Plan. Many parties supported requesting submissions from parties on various themes. However, while not ruling out thematic discussions, some parties expressed discomfort with a sector approach to raising ambition.

Informal consultations continued late into the evening.

AWG-KP

NUMBERS/TEXT: In the morning AWG-KP spin-off group on numbers/text, a coalition of developing countries introduced a proposal for Annex I parties to take on QELROs at CMP 8 consistent with the top end of their pledged ranges and to further increase ambition during the Protocol’s second commitment period. The proposal requires Annex I parties to ensure that QELROs adopted for the second commitment period lead to overall emission reductions of at least 33% below 1990 levels by 2017. It also establishes a process for each party to revisit its QELRO by 2014 at the latest, in line with an aggregate Annex I emission reductions of more than 45% below 1990 levels by 2020. Parties exchanged views on the proposal, with a number of them expressing support for using it as a basis for work, and some also supported considering the other two recent proposals. Many developed countries expressed concern with the years and numbers included in the proposal.

Parties also discussed the issue of the share of proceeds from the flexibility mechanisms. Developing countries presented a submission that proposes raising the share of proceeds to 5% of the Certified Emission Reductions issued for CDM projects registered after 31 December 2014. Many parties requested further clarifications and some expressed agreement to work on this basis.

Noting the need for further discussions to feed into the AWG-KP Chair’s revised text expected to be prepared on Wednesday, parties agreed to work in “informal informals” on text and find common ground, taking as a basis the three proposals and the Chair’s text.

AWG-LCA

AGREED OUTCOME: In the evening, AWG-LCA informal consultations took place with a view to providing an update on work on issues, including adaptation, technology, capacity building and response measures. It was also reported that finance will be taken up in consultations by two ministers. Parties also considered procedural issues, including the schedule for informal negotiations and the nature of the informal groups established to address issues which parties could not agree to forward to spin-off groups. Informal consultations continued late into the evening, addressing, inter alia, EITs.

IN THE CORRIDORS

On Tuesday, media attention turned to the opening of the high-level segment. This annual gathering presents an opportunity for high-level representatives to deliver statements on domestic progress and expectations from the UNFCCC negotiations. The high-level segment also presents an important chance for delegates to present “knotty issues” for resolution at the political level.

Away from the media spotlight, a plethora of consultations continued under all five bodies, with many feeling that the clock was running against the negotiators. One delegate remarked: “We’ve reached a stage where most negotiations are taking place in parallel, behind the scenes in informal-informals, so it is difficult to have an overall picture of everything that is happening, particularly under the AWG-LCA.”

The need for clarity on the “big picture” was also picked up elsewhere. CAN emphasized, during its afternoon press conference, that closing the AWG-LCA is not just a matter of “switching off the lights and leaving” as all the negotiating tracks are linked and “fundamental issues” under the Bali Action Plan must be resolved. CAN identified finance as one such fundamental issue, calling for a “credible trajectory towards 2020 with innovative sources of financing from a levy on international air and maritime transport, as well as a financial transaction tax.”

As if anticipating this call for mid-term finance, rumors circulated that the UK has become the first EU member state to make a pledge of post-2012 finance totaling € 2.2 billion. This had several participants, including some observers who heard the news via twitter, welcoming this and calling for other countries to follow suit.

Market mechanisms re-awoke as an issue many believe is essential to resolve before closing the AWG-KP and AWG-LCA. Chaired by Nicholas Stern, ministers and other-high-level representatives gathered during lunch time in a dialogue on the role of market mechanisms under the UNFCCC.

At the event, the high-level representative from Grenada called for a clear signal that the CDM will not end and that there will be a smooth transition to the second commitment period. The Chinese representative discussed plans for domestic emissions trading and energy efficiency initiatives, also highlighting the need to raise developed countries’ mitigation ambition which will stimulate demand for credits from international market mechanisms. Representatives from Australia and the EU highlighted the decision to link their respective emission trading schemes and form the world’s largest carbon market. Most participants leaving the dialogue found it interesting and hoped that progress on market mechanisms can be achieved in Doha. Others, however, expressed deep concern over the emphasis on carbon markets, with some developing country delegates indicating that they were “very disappointed” with the event.

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DAY-VIII: Monday, 3 December 2012

[Source: IISD Reporting]

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On Monday morning, afternoon and evening, contact groups and informal consultations convened on a number of issues, including the agreed outcome of the Ad Hoc Working Group on Long-term Cooperative Action under the Convention (AWG-LCA), item 3 under the Ad Hoc Working Group on Annex I Parties’ Further Commitments under the Kyoto Protocol (AWG-KP) and workstreams 1 and  2 under the Ad Hoc Working Group on the Durban Platform for Enhanced Action (ADP).

On Monday evening, an informal stocktaking plenary by COP 18/CMP 8 President Abdullah bin Hamad Al-Attiyah (Qatar) also took place.

COP 18/CMP 8 PRESIDENT’S STOCKTAKING PLENARY

In the evening, the COP 18/CMP 8 President’s stocktaking plenary convened. The SBI, SBSTA, AWG-KP, AWG-LCA and ADP chairs provided updates on the status of negotiations.

SBSTA Chair Richard Muyungi (Tanzania) highlighted that issues forwarded to the COP for further guidance include development and transfer of technology, and methodological issues under Protocol Articles 5, 7 and 8.

SBI Chair Thomaz Chruszczow (Poland) said that the SBI successfully closed many items, but indicated that items requiring further attention include national adaptation plans and MRV for non-Annex I parties related to international consultation and analysis. He added that issues requiring further political consideration include loss and damage, and technology.

AWG-KP Chair Madeleine Diouf (Senegal) noted her expectation for revised text on Wednesday and the completion of the AWG-KP’s work. She highlighted issues that may require ministerial input, including access to the flexibility mechanisms by parties not undertaking commitments in the second commitment period and raising the level of ambition.

AWG-LCA Chair Aysar Tayeb (Saudi Arabia) reported on the AWG-LCA outcome and the status of progress under the AWG-LCA agenda items. He said that some parties had identified the need for further work on various issues before concluding the AWG-LCA. While underscoring substantial progress on mitigation issues, he noted less progress on adaptation, finance, technology, capacity building and response measures. He said smaller groups are already engaged in drafting text under some of the agenda issues, and that issues of a political nature that would benefit from ministerial engagement are being identified.

ADP Co-Chair Harald Dovland (Norway) reported that the co-chairs had presented an informal note containing elements of the ADP work plan. He indicated that, based on feedback from parties, the informal note will be revised for consideration on Tuesday.

Highlighting the request for early outreach of ministers, COP 18 President Al-Attiyah said Luiz Figueiredo Machado (Brazil) and Bård Vegar Solhjell (Norway) will hold an informal ministerial outreach process to assist the AWG-KP Chair on discussions related to access to the Kyoto Protocol flexibility mechanisms for parties not taking commitments under the second commitment period and extending the share of proceeds to the other flexibility mechanisms. He added that also other issues could require further involvement by ministers later on.

Algeria, for the G-77/CHINA, expressed support for the President using appropriate approaches to find a solution that is acceptable to all parties and noted that the time factor “should not be used as a pretext to digress from the objective of achieving consensus.”

Swaziland, for the AFRICAN GROUP, expressed concern over the SBI’s closing plenary, which was held during the early hours of Sunday and highlighted that such procedural arrangements exceeded the capacity of small delegations. He called for clarity on whether the SBSTA item on agriculture would be taken up by the COP or forwarded to the next SBSTA.

Nauru, for AOSIS, emphasized that success in Doha requires an ambitious agreement on finance, and lamented lack of urgency and ambition across all negotiating tracks.

Australia, for the UMBRELLA GROUP, emphasized the need to: address issues around “operability” and eligibility for access to flexibility mechanisms in order to deliver a Kyoto Protocol second commitment period; recognize substantial outcomes achieved in Cancun and Durban; focus on areas of convergence to finalize any remaining work in the AWG-LCA; and capture ADP discussions in a text to send a signal that the ADP is on track.

Switzerland, for the EIG, highlighted the need to build consensus and not revisit what has already been agreed upon, and supported bringing specific issues to ministers for guidance. The EU emphasized that “we are here to deliver” a balanced package as agreed in Durban. On the second commitment period under the Protocol, she expressed concern about lack of progress on technical elements and welcomed ministerial input.

VENEZUELA expressed concern that parties are heading toward a “mitigation and market agreement” that will unfairly benefit developed countries. She further expressed concern that the AWG-LCA text does not include finance, adaptation or technology and stated that discussions on providing access to flexibility mechanisms for those not participating in a second commitment period violates the principles of the Kyoto Protocol.

Bangladesh, for the CLIMATE VULNERABLE FORUM, identified finance, technology and capacity building as critical for the 2013-2020 period. COLOMBIA, for Chile, Costa Rica, Dominican Republic, Guatemala and Peru, supported the engagement of ministers to address crucial issues discussed under the AWG-KP and emphasized the need for a party-driven process, particularly in the preparation of the AWG-LCA text.

BOLIVIA expressed concern over various informal notes produced by facilitators that do not consider submissions from some parties and the lack of progress on increasing the level of mitigation ambition. NICARAGUA called for avoiding a “lost decade for climate finance,” noting the lack of a roadmap to achieve the 2020 goal for finance.

Egypt, for the ARAB GROUP, stressed that there is no contradiction between ambition and equity, and that equity should be the “gateway to ambition.” He noted that ambition should also be multi-dimensional. India, for the LIKE-MINDED DEVELOPING COUNTRIES, underlined that the meaningful conclusion of the AWG-LCA is one of the main components of the Durban package, and called for resolving all its issues, including adaptation, capacity building, technology and finance.

Responding to questions on the status of the SBSTA agenda item on agriculture, SBSTA Chair Muyungi reported that the lack of consensus to refer this item to the COP for further consideration had been noted and that during the SBSTA closing plenary parties had agreed to continue consideration of this agenda item at SBSTA 38. Chair Muyungi further noted that he had reported this to the COP President.

COP President Al-Attiyah urged parties to continue their efforts to find solutions to the various issues, so as to complete work by Friday. He informed parties of his intention to complete the work forwarded by the SBs by Tuesday and to close the AWGs on Wednesday.

AWG-LCA

AGREED OUTCOME: In the morning, AWG-LCA Chair Tayeb convened informal consultations on the AWG-LCA agreed outcome. Discussions focused on a new text on the status of AWG-LCA agenda items 3-5 (AWG-LCA agreed outcome, Review and other matters).

Algeria, for the G-77/CHINA, expressed disappointment with the text, noting that it is “unbalanced,” failing to reflect the main elements of the Bali Action Plan. Nicaragua, for the LIKE-MINDED DEVELOPING COUNTRIES, with many other developing countries, stressed the need for text on adaptation, finance, technology and capacity building. Kenya, for the AFRICAN GROUP, identified the inclusion of key elements of the Bali Action Plan as a precondition for discussions. The PHILIPPINES, the UNITED ARAB EMIRATES and others lamented lack of clarity on the means of implementation. BOLIVIA objected to the “market-oriented” focus of the text. CHINA identified the need to close the AWG-LCA with a “comprehensive and balanced” outcome, saying the text before delegates is not comprehensive. ECUADOR identified: the environmental integrity of markets; measuring, reporting and verification (MRV) of financial support; and adaptation as “crucial” issues. The CENTRAL AFRICA FOREST COMMISSION called for a work programme that specifically addresses the socio-economic and ecosystem benefits of forest conservation.

The US, CANADA, AUSTRALIA and NEW ZEALAND emphasized the importance of recognizing progress made under the AWG-LCA, including the various new institutional arrangements established. Switzerland, for the EIG, warned against attempts “to revisit everything,” raise “artificially high” expectations and focus on “things that divide us.” JAPAN lamented lack of recognition by developing countries of progress on finance, including fast-track finance and the establishment of the Standing Committee. Several developed countries emphasized that discussions on issues, including adaptation and finance, will continue under other processes after the termination of the AWG-LCA. The EU drew attention, inter alia, to: the Adaptation Committee and the Standing Committee; and work on long-term finance and national adaptation plans. BARBADOS emphasized that there is no process outside the AWG-LCA to consider the post-2012 financing gap and that the Green Climate Fund remains “an empty shell.”

The EU highlighted specific tasks in the AWG-LCA’s mandate, saying that no decision on market approaches would mean no process to consider the issue after Doha. BRAZIL suggested that market mechanisms be discussed under the ADP, while the EU raised concerns over this idea. VENEZUELA stressed that the text on paragraph 1(b)(v) of the Bali Action Plan (market and non-market approaches) had been rejected by many developing countries during informal consultations, and objected to presenting the text as the basis for further negotiations. BOLIVIA agreed, emphasizing concerns over market mechanisms, including double counting and non-additionality that could increase emissions.

COLOMBIA urged: identifying under which bodies the Bali Action Plan can continue to be implemented; “giving closure to what can be closed”; and giving comfort to those who feel some issues are not reflected in the text. BRAZIL highlighted the need to wrap up everything under the AWG-LCA’s mandate and stressed that solving all these issues is a precondition for meaningful work under the ADP. SOUTH AFRICA and others emphasized that the closing text of the AWG-LCA must encompass all issues under the AWG-LCA’s mandate, and that some issues require more elaboration. MEXICO identified the need to take into consideration outcomes from COP 16 and 17, and consider what else needs to be done. She identified the need to close the AWG-LCA knowing that implementation of its outcomes will continue for many years.

 Chair Tayeb explained that the paper was not “his” text, but an unedited compilation of papers from the spin-off groups, except for those groups where there was no agreement to have a text. He signaled “a lot of work” ahead for the AWG-LCA this week, noting that while some groups would benefit from additional negotiating time, others are moving backwards and require guidance in order to move forward.

Chair Tayeb proposed that the spin-off group on shared vision focus on text on a process to: explore the numbers for a global goal and timeframe for peaking, together with their implications; and consider equitable access to sustainable development. On the Review, Chair Tayeb suggested that the group focus on the scope of the Review, coupled with considerations for expert input. On developed and developing country mitigation, Chair Tayeb urged parties to focus on establishing work programmes and their potential elements. After discussion, Chair Tayeb said “informal informals” would take place on the Review, shared vision, developed country mitigation and developing country mitigation.

AWG-KP

ITEM 3: In the morning, the AWG-KP contact group on item 3 (consideration of Annex I Parties’ further commitments) took place. AWG-KP Chair Diouf drew attention to her revised proposal to facilitate negotiations (FCCC/KP/AWG/2012/CRP.2).

Facilitator Sandea de Wet (South Africa) reported on the spin-off group on numbers/text, noting that parties had exchanged views on how to raise the ambition level. She noted “modest progress” on cleaning text, observing that the options on the eligibility to participate in the flexibility mechanisms during the second commitment period require further clarification, and progress is also needed on carry-over of surplus Assigned Amount Units (AAUs).

AWG-KP Vice-Chair Jukka Uosukainen (Finland) reported “good progress” in his informal consultations on matters relating to the second commitment period. He noted that some paragraphs in the draft CMP decision on Protocol amendments remain in brackets “for practical and tactical reasons,” waiting for progress in other groups rather than representing real, unsolved issues. He explained that issues related to the provisional application of the second commitment period (paragraphs 7-11) in the revised text remain to be solved. Vice-Chair Uosukainen identified three options for provisional application: opting out; opting in; and an implementing decision, saying these options are “not necessarily mutually exclusive.”

AWG-KP Chair Diouf then presented her assessment of how the AWG-KP can progress to full agreement. She explained that parties’ views on the length of the second commitment period, QELROs and ambition are still divergent. On the Protocol’s legal continuity from 1 January 2013, she said options are fewer and clearer, and asked whether parties see possibility of convergence. On the Protocol’s operational continuity for Annex I parties from 1 January 2013, she reported that proposals are on the table but identified the need for more time to discuss them.

With regards to the eligibility of Annex I parties not participating in the second commitment period to access the Protocol’s flexibility mechanisms, she observed divergent views with no compromise option in sight. Identifying this as a political issue, she reminded parties to refine a proposal for ministers. The EU emphasized the CDM as an important funding source for the Adaptation Fund. The Marshall Islands, for AOSIS, supported by INDIA, called for ensuring that a share of proceeds from the flexibility mechanisms is used for adaptation.

Noting proposals on the table, Chair Diouf also emphasized that the carry-over of surplus AAUs is a “complex, sensitive and political” issue. Expressing hope for a solution, she invited parties to work in a transparent manner before forwarding the issue to the ministers.

The EU underscored that parties have been working on the issues of carry-over of AAUs and increasing ambition, calling for the “fruits of this work” to be tabled before forwarding the text to ministers. Saint Lucia, for AOSIS, and several developing countries, stressed the need to achieve a higher level of ambition. She lamented that some parties have dropped to the lower end of their pledges despite their clear mandate to move up to the top end of their pledges, and noted their conditionalities have been met with the creation of the ADP process. The PHILIPPINES urged parties to “walk fast, far and forward.” AUSTRALIA identified ambition as a broader issue that must be addressed beyond the Protocol’s second commitment period. SWITZERLAND identified addressing the carry-over of surplus AAUs as a way to raise ambition.

ADP

WORKSTREAMS 1 AND 2: In the afternoon, the ADP convened informal consultations on workstreams 1 and 2. Parties considered the co-chairs’ informal note of 2 December. The informal note includes elements of a possible decision and conclusions, including on an ADP work plan, to be forwarded to the COP for consideration.

Parties made general comments on the informal note, as well as concrete proposals regarding specific paragraphs. Parties suggested that the Doha ADP outcome should include: commitment to complete work in 2015; negotiating text for 2014; and provisions for engaging with ministers from different sectors, for example, by holding yearly ministerial roundtables. Some parties stated their preference for a “minimalist outcome” in Doha, noting that nothing more was possible or necessary at this stage of discussions.

Several parties said it was too early to invite submissions on the architecture of a future agreement, with one party emphasizing that scope, and not architecture, needs to be defined. One developing country observed that all elements of the Durban Platform, and not just the two workstreams, should be addressed in a holistic manner. Several parties also stressed the need for balance between the two workstreams.

On the ADP’s workplan for 2013, several developed country parties questioned the need to convene additional sessions in 2013 for the ADP, stating that the scheduled UNFCCC sessions would provide sufficient time for discussions.

Several parties opposed text requesting the Secretariat to prepare a technical paper analyzing the mitigation potential of international cooperative initiatives, with one preferring that the ADP request the international cooperative initiatives themselves to identify their mitigation potential.

A revised co-chairs’ informal note will be prepared and informal consultations will continue.

IN THE CORRIDORS

The roomy corridors of the Qatar National Convention Center were noticeably busier on Monday as ministers and a contingent of fresh delegates began arriving for the final days of talks in Doha. During the stocktaking events and press conferences organized throughout the day, delegates had the chance to think of the arduous trek towards bringing the conference to a successful closure.

With the SBs concluded, all eyes were now on the AWG-KP and AWG-LCA, which have to resolve all outstanding issues within the next few days and terminate their work. Some, including the EU at its press conference, also highlighted the importance of agreeing on clear steps for the ADP to reach a legally-binding agreement by 2015. Informal discussions under the AWG-LCA retraced familiar divergences between developed and developing countries that remain on issues to be addressed to fulfill the AWG-LCA’s mandate. There did not seem to be consensus among delegates on which issues were the most controversial; some cited adaptation, finance and market mechanisms, while others said unilateral trade measures and response measures were sticking points.

Despite so much work remaining, some commented on the “lackluster” conference, with one NGO representative saying it felt like a “bureaucratic COP.” After the evening stocktaking plenary, several delegates were in a rather pessimistic mood and seemed far from certain that a successful outcome was in sight. One long-time delegate said he had “little hope for a ‘surprise’ agreement at the end of it.

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DAY-VI: Saturday, 1 December 2012

[Source: IISD Reporting]

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On Saturday, delegates met in contact groups, informal consultations and other meetings of the Convention and Protocol bodies throughout the day. In the evening, the closing plenaries of the SBs convened.

SBI

ELECTION OF OFFICERS: SBI Chair Chruszczow reported that consultations on nominations for the Vice-Chair and Rapporteur are still ongoing. He proposed, and parties agreed, that the SBI request the COP to elect these officers at the COP closing plenary on 7 December, while the current Vice-Chair and Rapporteur will continue to serve until their replacements are elected.

PROTOCOL ARTICLES 3.14 AND 2.3; FORUM AND WORK PROGRAMME ON THE IMPACT OF THE IMPLEMENTATION OF RESPONSE MEASURES; AND PROGRESS ON THE IMPLEMENTATION OF DECISION 1/CP.10: Parties adopted draft conclusions (FCCC/SBI/2012/L.34) on response measures. The SBI agreed to reflect in the meeting report that joint SBI/SBSTA consultations on Protocol Articles 3.14 and 2.3 had not been concluded at this session and will continue at the next session. They also agreed that the SBI will continue consideration of decision 1/CP.10 at the next session.

CTCN ARRANGEMENTS: Chair Chruszczow highlighted that negotiations are close to agreement. The  SBI adopted conclusions (FCCC/SBI/2012/L.54) agreeing to take the draft decision forward for COP consideration and finalization.

TEC: On the report of the TEC, INDIA requested clarification on how the COP would consider outstanding text forwarded by the SBI. Chair Chruszczow responded that he would raise the issue with the COP President and that it is up to the COP to decide how to address bracketed text, on the advice of the President. GEORGIA stated that further work is required for the text to more fully reflect parties’ views. The SBI adopted conclusions (FCCC/SBI/2012/L.51) and forwarded a draft decision for consideration to the COP.

Noting that discussions on the following items had not yielded agreement, the SBI adopted the conclusions and agreed to transmit the draft decisions to the COP for consideration and finalization:

  • ICA (FCCC/SBI/2012/L.50);
  • CGE (FCCC/SBI/2012/L.53);
  • Capacity building under the Convention (FCCC/SBI/2012/L.42);
  • National adaptation plans (FCCC/SBI/2012/L.41); and
  • Loss and damage (FCCC/SBI/2012/L.44).

OTHER SBI AGENDA ITEMS: The SBI adopted draft conclusions on the following agenda items, with little or no further discussion:

  • Annual compilation and accounting report for Annex B parties under the Protocol for 2012 (FCCC/SBI/2012/L.28);
  • Review of the commitment period reserve (FCCC/SBI/2012/L.29);
  • International transaction log (FCCC/SBI/2012/L.30);
  • LDC matters (FCCC/SBI/2012/L.35);
  • Technology transfer (FCCC/SBI/2012/L.37);
  • Compliance (FCCC/SBI/2012/L.40);
  • Appeals against the CDM Executive Board decisions (FCCC/SBI/2012/L.43); and
  • Non Annex I Parties’ national communications (FCCC/SBI/2012/L.52).

The SBI also adopted draft conclusions and recommended a draft COP decision on each of the following items:

  • Report of the Adaptation Committee (joint SBI/SBSTA conclusions and decision (FCCC/SBSTA/2012/L.22-FCCC/SBI/2012/L.33);
  • Prototype of the NAMA registry (FCCC/SBI/2012/L.39);
  • Further guidance to the LDC Fund (FCCC/SBI/2012/L.49);
  • GEF report (FCCC/SBI/2012/L.48);
  • Article 6 of the Convention (FCCC/SBI/2012/L.47);
  • Review of the financial mechanism (FCCC/SBI/2012/L.45); and
  • Other matters: Enhancing participation of women in UNFCCC bodies (FCCC/SBI/2012/L.36).

On administrative, financial and institutional matters, the SBI adopted draft conclusions and recommended draft decisions to the COP and the CMP for adoption (FCCC/SBI/2012/L.31 and 32). INDIA requested that the Secretariat prepare an explanatory note on activities financed under the supplementary and core budgets, clarifying under which budget the provision of funds for ICA and biennial update reports would be considered.

On the initial review of the Adaptation Fund, the SBI adopted conclusions (FCCC/SBI/2012/L.46) and recommended a draft decision to the CMP for adoption.

On capacity building under the Protocol, the SBI adopted conclusions (FCCC/SBI/2012/L.38) and recommended a draft decision to the CMP for adoption.

CLOSE OF THE SESSION: The SBI adopted its report (FCCC/SBI/2012/L.27). In their closing remarks, many parties welcomed the establishment of the Doha Work Programme on Article 6 of the Convention and urged for the establishment of a mechanism for loss and damage in Doha. SBI Chair Chruszczow thanked participants and closed the SBI 37 at 2:32 am.

SBSTA

EMISSIONS FROM FUEL USED FOR INTERNATIONAL AVIATION AND MARITIME TRANSPORT: The SBSTA took note of the information contained in the progress reports of ICAO and IMO, and invited these organizations to continue to report on this issue. This will be reflected in the report of the meeting.

METHODOLOGICAL ISSUES RELATING TO HCFC-22 AND HFC-23: The SBSTA agreed to continue discussions of this issue at SBSTA 38. This will be reflected in the report of the meeting.

PROTOCOL ARTICLES 2.3 AND 3.14 (ADVERSE IMPACTS): The SBSTA was not able to conclude consultations on how to address Protocol Articles 2.3 and 3.14. The report of the session will reflect that the SBSTA and SBI will continue these consultations at SB38.

ISSUES RELATING TO AGRICULTURE: Chair Muyungi reported that the SBSTA had been unable to conclude consideration of this agenda item, and informed parties that he would report this to the COP President. INDIA opposed this, stating that parties had not authorized the SBSTA Chair to make this report back to the COP President. He suggested that the SBSTA should adopt a decision stating that the parties could not conclude discussion of this item and would continue discussions at the next SBSTA session.

URUGUAY said SBSTA should focus on food production and the technical aspects of agriculture, highlighting that emissions from agriculture-related activities in developing countries would need to increase because of the need for increased food production.

BANGLADESH, BRAZIL, the GAMBIA, ARGENTINA, NICARAGUA and CUBA supported deferring the agenda issue to the next SBSTA session. VENEZUELA and others said the issue is of a technical nature and therefore should not be sent to the COP. ETHIOPIA said the COP in Durban mandated the SBSTA to adopt a decision on agriculture at COP 18 and that the COP should therefore decide if consideration of the issue can continue at the next SBSTA session. The EU said the work under this item should progress as much as possible in Doha.

Chair Muyungi clarified that he will report to the COP President that the SBSTA will consider this issue at the next SBSTA session and, after further interventions by parties, ruled that he would report to the COP that no consensus was achieved on the issue and that the SBSTA will consider the issue at its next session. Supporting other developing countries, BOLIVIA highlighted that agriculture has to be addressed in the context of adaptation, poverty eradication and food security.

REDD+: SBSTA Chair Muyungi reported lack of agreement on the issues under this agenda item. Parties adopted conclusions (FCCC/SBSTA/2012/L.31), which provide that the issue will be further taken up at SBSTA 38, with the aim of completing work at SBSTA 39. Saying that in Cancun the COP decided that REDD+ should be fully measured, reported and verified, NORWAY expressed concern at the lack of agreement on MRV, noting the issue is key for environmental integrity. She expressed willingness to continue work in Doha to arrive at a decision on this issue.

BRAZIL, ARGENTINA, INDIA, CUBA, VENEZUELA and CHINA expressed support for continuing consideration of the issue at SBSTA 38. The US, for Australia, Canada, Japan, New Zealand, Norway and Russia, with the EU, supported finding common ground on the issue in Doha, emphasizing MRV. COLOMBIA supported further work in Doha to arrive at a decision.

SBSTA Chair Muyungi reiterated that according to the adopted conclusions and in accordance with rule 26 of the draft rules of procedure, the issue will be taken up at SBSTA 38.

TECHNOLOGY TRANSFER: The SBSTA adopted conclusions (FCCC/SBSTA/2012/L.32), as amended. The SBSTA agreed that the matter would be transmitted to the COP for consideration and finalization.

COMMON TABULAR FORMAT FOR THE UNFCCC BIENNIAL REPORTING GUIDELINES FOR DEVELOPED COUNTRIES: Noting that discussions on this item had not yielded an agreement, the SBSTA agreed to transmit the draft decision to the COP for consideration and finalization.

IMPLICATIONS OF IMPLEMENTATION OF DECISIONS 2-5/CMP. 7: Noting that discussions on this item had not yielded agreement, the SBSTA agreed to transmit the draft decision to the CMP for consideration and finalization.

OTHER SBSTA AGENDA ITEMS: The SBSTA adopted draft conclusions on the following agenda items, with little or no further discussion:

  • Research and systematic observation (FCCC/SBSTA/2012/L.25 & Add.1);
  • Nairobi work programme on impacts, vulnerability and adaptation to climate change (FCCC/SBSTA/2012/L.26);
  • Forum and work programme on the impact of the implementation of response measures (FCCC/SBSTA/2012/L.23);
  • General guidelines on domestic MRV of domestic NAMAs (FCCC/SBSTA/2012/L.24);
  • LULUCF (FCCC/SBSTA/2012/L.30);
  • Work programme on the revision of the guidelines for the review of developing country biennial reports and national communications, including national inventory reviews (FCCC/SBSTA/2012/L.28); and
  • Carbon capture and storage as CDM project activities (FCCC/SBSTA/2012/L.21).

The SBSTA also adopted draft conclusions and recommended a draft COP decision on each of the following items:

  • Report of the Adaptation Committee (joint SBI/SBSTA conclusions and decision – FCCC/SBSTA/2012/L.22-FCCC/SBI/2012/L.33); and
  • Other matters: activities implemented jointly under the pilot phase (FCCC/SBSTA/2012/L.27).

CLOSE OF THE SESSION: SBSTA 37 adopted its report (FCCC/SBSTA/2012/L.20). Parties made closing statements. SBSTA Chair Muyungi thanked participants for their dedication and closed SBSTA 37 at 3:04 am.

CONTACT GROUPS AND INFORMAL CONSULTATIONS

ADP:Workstream 1: Post-2020 regime: During the morning informal consultations, parties presented their views on the way forward. They supported the Co-Chairs’ proposal to produce a summary note on the Doha roundtable discussions under the two workstreams and draft text by Sunday, based on parties’ inputs.

Several parties called for a high-level decision in Doha demonstrating commitment to a legally-binding agreement by 2015. A number of parties stressed that the absence of robust and ambitious outcomes under the AWG-KP and AWG-LCA would set a “dangerous” precedent for the ADP.

Many parties requested an ADP meeting during the first quarter of 2013 to discuss the way forward, with subsequent meetings focusing on substance. They also encouraged the Co-Chairs to prepare a schedule of meetings for 2013. Acknowledging the value of written submissions, several parties also supported face-to-face discussions in a roundtable format.

Many parties supported keeping the two workstreams distinct. One group of countries noted that Workstream 1 is still in the conceptual rather than specific content phase, with another party emphasizing the value of conceptual discussions in building convergence.

ADP Workstream 2: Ways to bridge the ambition gap: During informal consultations, many parties focused their interventions on the planning of work for 2013 and beyond, as well as on ways to engage ministers and bridge the ambition gap. Many parties supported an additional session in the first quarter of 2013 and called for a timetable for 2013, with one calling for defining “deliverable milestones that can serve as benchmarks of progress.” Others emphasized identifying a range of options for closing the pre-2020 ambition gap, noting that any decision should include cost-effective policies and measures, and means for implementing them.

Many developed countries highlighted the need to understand: the barriers preventing some parties from coming forward with their pledges; and the effects that complementary initiatives have on closing the ambition gap. In response, a party proposed calling for national submissions on conditions for raising ambition. Many supported the preparation of a summary paper by the Co-Chairs capturing parties’ views. Some favored convening a resumed session in Bonn to continue the work started in Doha.

Parties supported multiple modalities for working in 2013, with meetings and workshops at different levels and involving multiple stakeholders, including parties, international organizations, the private sector and the scientific community. This, many agreed, could increase ambition and expand work already undertaken. The Co-Chairs will produce draft text by Sunday. Informal consultations will continue on Monday.

AWG-LCA: Stocktaking Plenary: AWG-LCA Chair Aysar Tayeb and several spin-off group facilitators reported on progress achieved during the week. On shared vision and on countries whose special circumstances have been recognized by the COP, Facilitator Zou Ji (China), and Chair Tayeb, respectively, reported that divergent views remain and further work is needed.

On developed country mitigation, Facilitator Andrej Kranjc (Slovenia), reported agreement on some elements, such as the need for further work to be carried out after the closure of the AWG-LCA, particularly on the clarification of pledges. He highlighted parties’ submissions, noting that a facilitator’s note will be prepared. On developing country mitigation, Facilitator Gary Theseira (Malaysia), reported that a facilitator’s note will be prepared, outlining elements of agreement, as well as matters that need further work.

On various approaches, Facilitator Alexa Klesysteuber (Chile), reported positive progress and constructive discussions on the framework for various approaches and the new market mechanism, although divergence remains on both issues and the relationship between them. She said a facilitator’s note was prepared based on submissions and discussions. On Review, Facilitator Gertraud Wollansky (Austria), reported progress on clarifying options, as well as divergent views on the establishment of an expert group and the scope of the Review.

On sectoral approaches, Chair Tayeb said a facilitator’s note was prepared based on exchanges and informal meetings, but highlighted that the text has not been approved by parties to be used as a basis for negotiations. On REDD+, Chair Tayeb reported that the facilitator was requested by parties to work on text that can take work forward. On EITs, Chair Tayeb said that progress was reflected in text that enjoys agreement by parties engaged in the discussions. Chair Tayeb reported divergent views on the need for further decisions on issues addressed under the AWG-LCA Chair’s informal consultations, namely adaptation, technology, finance, response measures and capacity building. He said views diverge on, inter alia: unilateral trade measures; further guidance regarding national adaptation plans; economic diversification; relationship between the CTCN and the TEC; technology and IPRs; mid-term finance for the 2012-2020 period; and the need for a work programme for capacity building.

AWG-LCA Chair Tayeb said he intended to convene open-ended informal consultations on the AWG-LCA agreed outcome starting Monday, focusing on how the last pieces of the AWG-LCA work can come together to fulfill its mandate. He said the proposal would allow parties to identify some of the elements of a more political nature and require political engagement by the ministers.

The US requested clarification on the status of the notes produced under the different spin-off groups. BOLIVIA said the draft text on various approaches did not reflect his country’s proposal, submitted jointly by 21 countries, and only focused on market mechanisms.

Some countries expressed support for the proposed way forward. Switzerland, for the EIG, suggested parties could work on the issues where agreement is possible and decide whether text is necessary for other issues. SINGAPORE asked how discussions would be organized in the open-ended informal consultations. The EU stated that the group should focus on the issues prioritized in Durban. CUBA, supported by ECUADOR, proposed that the Chair prepare draft text for issues where parties are not able to come up with text. MEXICO supported a model that allows broader conversations while enabling spin-off groups to continue their work.

Chair Tayeb explained that all the informal notes prepared by the spin-off groups are based on informal consultations and need to be brought to the contact group for endorsement. He added that none of the informal notes at this stage represent consensus. He said open-ended informal consultations would begin with a broad overview of the AWG-LCA issues before starting on substantive work. Chair Tayeb indicated that where work under the spin-off  groups can proceed in parallel, it would. Noting the challenges ahead, he expressed confidence that the AWG-LCA would conclude its work successfully.

AWG-KP: Matters relating to the Second Commitment Period: During afternoon informal consultations, discussions focused on a new version of the draft CMP decision on amendments to the Kyoto Protocol. Parties discussed the text paragraph-by-paragraph, trying to streamline the options and remove brackets. Divergence remained in particular on the issue of how to reflect the urgency of ratifying the amendments, with several developed countries objecting to the imposition of a time limit for adopting the amendments, and several developing countries asserting the importance of having such a time limit.

A revised version of the AWG-KP Chair’s text incorporating discussions and proposals made so far will be prepared. Consultations will continue.

IN THE CORRIDORS

The first week of negotiations culminated in a long drawn-out closure, as the SBs concluded their work in the early hours of Sunday morning; drawing clear lines between parties’ positions, but also finding what one delegate called “overlaps in comfort zones.” The SB plenaries convened late, and in one case suspended a number of times, to allow delegates “last chance conversations” on text.

Meanwhile, in the afternoon, the ADP Co-Chairs’ special event to further engage observers in the work of ADP was marked with an exceptional turnout, with NGOs representing “all shades of grey.” “If only parties could make interventions that are so concise and to the point,” marveled one delegate. During the event, Professor Daniel Bodansky suggested options for an outcome for the ADP in Doha, outlining three legal options: a contractual, a facilitative and a multi-track approach. Professor Jiahua Pan elaborated on the idea of a nexus for sustainability stressing the inter-linkages between energy, climate, water, and food security.

With only five negotiating days remaining, many began to wonder if Doha would actually be able to deliver. One developed country negotiator complained “Durban and Cancun were complicated; all we have to do here is to close the AWG-LCA, agree on a second commitment period and send a signal on the ADP. There are certain parties who are making this COP much more complicated than it needs to be.” As ministers begin to arrive, it remains to be seen what will unfold during the week ahead.

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DAY-V: Friday, 30 November 2012

[Source: IISD Reporting ]

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On Friday, delegates convened in contact groups, informal consultations and other meetings of the Convention and Protocol bodies throughout the day. In the evening, a COP/CMP stocktaking plenary convened.

INFORMAL COP/CMP STOCKTAKING PLENARY

COP 18 President Al-Attiyah opened the stocktaking plenary and invited the Chairs of the SBs and the AWGs to provide updates on the work undertaken under their respective bodies.

SBSTA Chair Richard Muyungi reported that the SBSTA is on course to close on Saturday afternoon. He said the agenda items on response measures, carbon capture and storage, and HFCs have concluded. He also reported progress on research and observation, technology, and reporting guidelines, and said discussions on agriculture and methodological guidance for REDD+ will continue on Friday night.

SBI Chair Thomaz Chruszczow reported that parties have concluded work under the agenda item on adaptation. On the NAMA Registry, he highlighted the importance of parties providing clear guidance in order to finalize work. On national adaptation plans, Chair Chruszczow reported that parties appear “stuck” on how to bridge differences. On loss and damage, he said parties need to identify which items must conclude in Doha. Chair Chruszczow further reported broad consensus on the interim arrangements for the initial review of the Adaptation Fund. On the TEC, he said the issue of IPRs seems to be blocking progress.

AWG-KP Chair Madeleine Diouf reported that the spin-off group on numbers/text has narrowed down options on carry-over of AAUs. She said the main outstanding issue is how to address legal issues relating to the period between the start of the second commitment period on 1 January 2013 and the entry into force of the amendments to the Kyoto Protocol. She expressed optimism about having text by next Wednesday.

AWG-LCA Chair Aysar Tayeb reported that there are still several areas where parties’ views diverge. He said parties are looking at how some of these issues can be further addressed and how to best organize work in order to expedite an agreed outcome and closure of the AWG-LCA. He indicated that all possibilities will be explored, including ministerial engagement.

ADP Chair Jayant Mauskar reported that four roundtables have been held, two on each workstream, and that informal consultations will be held on Saturday. Describing the outlook as positive, he commended parties for producing suggestions on how to bridge the ambition gap.

Parties then commented on the Chairs’ reports, as well as on the status of negotiations. Many parties lamented lack of progress on certain issues, such as loss and damage, finance and mitigation. One party called for a cross-cutting process to allow parties to build convergence across issues. Several parties highlighted the need for ministerial intervention and called for producing text, which ministers can discuss next week.

COP President Hamad Al-Attiyah urged parties to work in the spirit of solidarity, seek creative and pragmatic solutions, and asked them not to wait until the “final hour” on Friday to reach agreement.

CONTACT GROUPS AND INFORMAL CONSULTATIONS

COP: CONTACT GROUP ON FINANCE: Long-term Finance: During afternoon informal consultations on finance, parties were asked to focus on the scope of a possible draft decision text, considering: implementation of finance; needs assessment; enabling environments; mobilization and scaling up of finance; and tracking of climate change finance. Some developing countries emphasized that: any process on finance under the Convention needs to be inclusive and transparent; and an enabling environment is a two-way process beyond private sector market access. Several developed countries expressed concern about inappropriately translating co-chairs’ recommendations into a potential decision. Stressing the need to address the finance gap, one developing country delegate suggested that discussions should be based on parties’ recommendations and focus on sources and entities. Noting the links between long-term finance and technology transfer, another suggested a reform of the funding decisions of international financial institutions to redirect finance towards investments in energy-efficient and less- carbon-intensive-technology. Consultations will continue.

AWG-LCA: Developing Country Mitigation: During the informal consultations, Facilitator Gary Theseira (Malaysia) informed parties that the AWG-LCA Chair will prepare a Chair’s text to be made available on Saturday. Many parties, particularly developed countries, opposed this.

Parties then identified issues that need to be resolved in order for the AWG-LCA to achieve a successful outcome in Doha. Switzerland, for the EIG, NORWAY, for Australia, New Zealand, the US, Canada and Japan, the EU and MARSHALL ISLANDS, opposed by CHINA, proposed that the Secretariat prepare a technical paper compiling all the information on NAMAs submitted by developing countries. The EIG and NORWAY further suggested that a work programme be launched under the SBSTA to facilitate understanding of the submitted NAMAs.

Mali, for the G-77/CHINA, called for concluding work on the Registry. South Africa, for the AFRICAN GROUP, said developing countries can take on NAMAs commensurate with their abilities and national circumstances. He further: proposed that the SBSTA be requested to develop modalities for facilitation of support and MRV of support; supported a joint SBI/SBSTA work programme; and called for workshops focusing on implementation and capacity building in developing countries. CANADA opposed discussion of issues relating to the Registry, noting that these are being discussed under the SBI.

Facilitator Theseira will prepare text based on the discussions and identify areas of convergence and divergence. Consultations will continue.

Developed Country Mitigation: In the morning informal consultations, parties discussed how to take forward the work after 2012. Discussions were based on technical papers prepared by the Secretariat and parties’ submissions. NORWAY introduced a proposal by Norway, Australia, New Zealand, Japan, Canada, the US and Australia, intended to set up a work programme up to 2014 to seek further clarification on pledges’ underlying assumptions, before parties start reporting on their achievement of mitigation targets. The EIG also introduced a textual proposal for a work programme to clarify assumptions and conditions, particularly in relation to issues such as market mechanisms and LULUCF.

Mali, for the G-77/CHINA, highlighted the need for further work on ambition of targets and development of a common accounting framework to ensure comparability of mitigation efforts. The EU supported a work programme to clarify pledges with thematic discussions under the SBSTA. COLOMBIA, DOMINICAN REPUBLIC and others supported transferring work to the SBs in a focused and structured manner. BOLIVIA said a work programme up to 2013 should aim to find common accounting rules, methodologies and tools based on the Kyoto Protocol. NEW ZEALAND said agreement on common accounting rules will not be possible in Doha, calling for a pragmatic approach. The Marshall Islands, for AOSIS, called for action to raise ambition in the context of the long-term goal. JAPAN highlighted the need for accounting rules to be flexible enough to accommodate and maximize parties’ mitigation efforts. He noted that ambition will be taken up by one of the ADP workstreams.

Facilitator Kranjc informed parties that he would prepare draft text capturing parties’ discussions and submissions will report to the AWG-LCA Chair.

FINANCE: During the informal consultations, parties exchanged views on the continuity of finance after 2012. The G-77/CHINA introduced a proposal to address the “finance gap,” including accurate accounting of the provision of finance. The US cited compromises made on fast-start finance and a finance target for 2020, emphasizing that no further decisions are required for the AWG-LCA to complete its work on this issue. JAPAN maintained that there is no need for a decision on finance in Doha. COLOMBIA highlighted that a finance goal between now and the 2020 objective is necessary as a process to support developed countries in achieving the 2020 target. GUATEMALA said that reaching an outcome in Doha will not be possible if a decision on finance is not part of the package. Barbados, for AOSIS, highlighted that the G-77/CHINA proposal intends to contribute towards assessing the progress towards the 2020 finance objective. Discussions will continue.

AWG-KP: Matters Relating to the Second Commitment Period: During the afternoon informal consultations, parties considered a draft CMP decision on amendments to the Kyoto Protocol. The text compiled the various options proposed by parties on, inter alia: issues relating to the length of the commitment period; application of the amendments to the Kyoto Protocol; eligibility to participate in the flexibility mechanisms; and conclusion of the work of the AWG-KP. Consultations will continue.

ADP: Roundtable on Workstream 1: Post-2020 regime: Parties discussed questions presented by the ADP co-chairs including on the application of the principles of the Convention in the new agreement.

Several developing countries stressed: transparency, common reporting, accounting and MRV; and rigorous compliance rules. Many parties noted agreement on the continuation of the Convention principles, with: CHINA stressing CBDR; BARBADOS and NORWAY highlighting the precautionary principle; and the US suggesting that principles need to evolve to reflect changing circumstances and capabilities. The US further stressed that: financial contributions will depend on what is deliverable; and a successful and ambitious agreement applicable to all requires flexibility, fairness and transparency to allow accountability for “collective adequacy.” SWITZERLAND invited parties to apply the Convention principles in a manner that “empowers us to do more and not as an excuse to do nothing.” The RUSSIAN FEDERATION stressed that decision 1/CP.17 clearly recognizes that climate change has to be “urgently addressed by all parties.” BOLIVIA emphasized that mitigation has to be undertaken in conjunction with poverty eradication and sustainable development. CHINA stressed that recategorizing developing countries would amount to reinterpretation of the Convention. JAPAN said universal peer review could provide a tool to incentivize participation.

Informal consultations on the two workstreams will begin on Saturday.

SBI: Initial Review of the Adaptation Fund Under the Kyoto Protocol: During informal consultations, parties considered draft conclusions. Discussions focused on adequacy and sustainability of funds for the Adaptation Fund, and a possible extension of the interim trustee’s term. On adequacy and sustainability of funds, some developed countries suggested taking up the discussion under the agenda item on the report of the Adaptation Fund under the CMP or under the report of the Standing Committee under the COP. Many developing countries said that tight timelines should not preclude the consideration of this matter by the group and supported retaining the paragraphs in the text.

On the possible extension of the interim trustee’s term, one party proposed an open bidding process. Many developed parties, however, supported accepting the Adaptation Fund Board’s recommendation to maintain the interim trustee arrangements. Discussions will continue.

IN THE CORRIDORS

As the first week of the Doha meeting began to wind down, talk turned to the news about the AWG-LCA Chair’s intention to table compilation text on Saturday, based on parties’ discussions and views, for delegates to review over the weekend. Many delegates expressed anticipation, others trepidation, recalling reactions to the Chair’s previous text. Some participants wondered if any of the concerns already expressed earlier in the week would re-emerge, with one delegate inquiring whether the revised version of an overview text would just be a “revised overview text.”

Summing up where things stand at this point in the negotiations, UNFCCC Executive Secretary Christiana Figueres, during a press conference, said that “we are now starting to see the strands that will be woven together into an agreement next week.” It remains to be seen which strands the ministers will help to weave.

Meanwhile, in the late evening stocktaking COP/CMP plenary, COP 18 President Al-Attiyah welcomed Palestine to the Conference, echoing the recent UN General Assembly vote to upgrade Palestine to a “non-member observer state.” His words were “I am very happy that, from today, your seat changes.”

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DAY-IV: Thursday, 29 November 2012

[Source: UN Solution Exchange, India’s Climate and Water Community- http://www.solutionexchange.net.in/ ]

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COP: CONTACT GROUP ON FINANCE:This meeting was co-chaired by Kamel Djemouai (Algeria) and Gregory Andrews (Australia). Co-Chair Djemouai explained that work during the session would be conducted in a balanced manner, and aim to address all the sub-items under the agenda item equally. He invited parties to articulate the scope of a draft decision on each of the sub-items.

o    Long-term Finance: Referring to the report of the workshop on the work programme on long-term finance, JAPAN stated that it would be inappropriate to deem international shipping and aviation a source of long-term global climate finance. With CHINA, he also opposed establishing a high-level expert group, comprising the UNFCCC Secretariat, ICAO and IMO, to examine options for ensuring that revenues from international aviation and shipping can be used for climate finance.

o    Describing the report as “wide reaching,” the EU observed that it was important to recognize that no single source can address the aims of climate finance. He added that it would be useful to continue technical work on mobilizing and deploying financial resources more effectively, with work on revenues from bunker fuels being an important aspect, as well as the need for a comprehensive carbon pricing policy.

o    The US and NEW ZEALAND questioned the value of a political process at this stage, given that the previous commitments to fast- start finance made in Copenhagen and Cancun were achieved. Parties agreed to submit proposals by Saturday, with a view to prepare draft text.

ü  Standing Committee report: The PHILIPPINES drew attention to related discussions under the AWG-LCA, and suggested convening a joint meeting between the COP contact group and the AWG-LCA. The EU drew attention to the need to discuss interlinkages with the SBI, and underscored the need to avoid overlaps. Parties agreed to submit proposals by Friday, with a view to prepare draft text.

ü  GCF report and guidance: The Philippines, for the G-77/CHINA, supported providing guidance to the GCF on issues such as what the Fund will do, and how to consider funding for projects. Parties agreed to submit proposals on this issue by Friday.

ü  Arrangements between the GCF and the COP: Parties disagreed on which body should be responsible for drafting the arrangements between the GCF and the COP. The US and JAPAN stated that the key elements of the arrangements were already agreed upon and the GCF had independent juridical authority operating under the guidance of the COP and was therefore capable of drafting the arrangements. Parties agreed to submit proposals by Friday.

ü  CMP: CDM: This contact group was co-chaired by Kunihiko Shimada (Japan) and Giza Gaspar Martins (Angola). Co-Chair Shimada informed parties that the co-chairs had prepared a list of issues for discussion, divided into matters relating to: general matters and governance; methodologies and additionality; registration and issuance; and regional distribution.

o    Co-Chair Shimada invited all parties to submit proposals and requested parties that have made suggestions to submit written proposals on how to address their suggestions. The Co-Chairs will produce a draft text based on these comments and suggestions for consideration by parties. Informal consultations will continue.

ü  ADP: Roundtable on Workstream 2: Ways to bridge the ambition gap: Parties focused on: how the Convention can strengthen, encourage and support international and national actions that are additional and supplementary to pledges; and what international cooperative initiatives have the potential to deliver sizeable emission reductions towards closing the ambition gap, and how these can be supported and scaled up.

o    The US emphasized the need to invite the private sector and others to provide views on emission reduction opportunities, and encouraged incentives for businesses in order to promote sustainability and emission reductions, noting that money will be “at the heart of what we do.”

o    CHINA emphasized that the ADP is only one part of the Durban package and that it includes results in the AWG-KP and AWG-LCA.

ü  AWG-KP: Numbers/Text: In the afternoon informal consultations, parties focused on eligibility to participate in the flexibility mechanisms in the second commitment period. Parties presented their textual proposals, following which parties commented on them or sought clarification on issues. Informal consultations will continue.

ü  Issues Relating to the Second Commitment Period: During the afternoon informal consultations, new draft text was introduced, containing a draft CMP decision on amendments to the Kyoto Protocol pursuant to Article 3.9. Parties discussed the text paragraph-by-paragraph. Consultations will continue.

ü  AWG-LCA: Adaptation: During informal consultations, AWG-LCA Chair Tayeb, explained that his text is an overview based on parties’ views, submissions and previous work by the group in Bonn and Bangkok.A number of developing countries welcomed some suggestions included in the AWG-LCA text on adaptation, but highlighted elements that had not been proposed before, such as a work programme on economic diversification, expressing concern that this proposal could overlap with other ongoing discussions, including the Forum on Response Measures. Many parties acknowledged the progress on adaptation issues since the adoption of the Bali Action Plan, including the establishment of institutions and processes

ü  SBI/SBSTA: Response Measures Forum: The forum was co-chaired by Richard Muyungi (Tanzania) and Tomasz Chruszczow (Poland. The EU said reporting on adverse impacts is a “learning process,” citing recent improvements in their national communications.

Meanwhile, a number of youth events were held in honor of “Youth Day” with many reflecting on the world they are going to inherit if progress continues at a “snail’s pace,” wondering if their protest to “thank delegates for their progress” was premature.

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DAY-III: Wednesday, 28 November 2012

[Source: UN Solution Exchange, India’s Climate and Water Community- http://www.solutionexchange.net.in/ ]

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ADAPTATION FUND:

Luis Santos (Uruguay), Chair, Adaptation Fund Board, presented to the CMP, the Report of the Adaptation Fund Board. He highlighted a significant increase in the number of adaptation projects financed and national implementating entities accredited. He urged Annex I parties to make financial contributions to avoid compromising the Fund’s capacity to meet the needs of vulnerable countries.

JAMAICA, supported by SUDAN, the PHILIPPINES, VANUATU and ZAMBIA, called on the CMP to facilitate mobilization of additional funds during CMP 8. Pointing to the limitations of the carbon market, BURKINA FASO suggested exploring ways to institutionalize predictable funding sources. INDIA noted that the record of Annex I countries leaves “no reason for optimism” on their willingness to voluntarily scale up contributions to the Adaptation Fund. A contact group was established to facilitate further discussions.

CDM:

Maosheng Duan (China), Chair, CDM Executive Board, reported on the work of the Board, highlighting the CDM’s success and expressing hope that it will remain a tool for incentivizing investment. He urged parties to provide a clear signal on the CDM’s future.

ZAMBIA called for accreditation of additional designated operational entities in Africa, and proposed continued reform of the CDM to address transparency and accountability, and simplify methodologies.

SWITZERLAND supported the continuation of the CDM while citing specific types of projects requiring further work on environmental integrity. NEW ZEALAND pointed out that the Kyoto Protocol only covers 15% of emissions and noted that if only parties participating in the second commitment period can access the CDM, the demand for CDM projects is likely to be insufficient.

ISSUES RELATED TO JOINT IMPLEMENTATION:

Wolfgang Seidel (Germany), Chair, Joint Implementation Supervisory Committee (JISC), said JI is at a critical junction and is facing an “uncertain future.”

GRENADA expressed concern over a number of recommendations, including devolving responsibility for validation to host countries and the option of issuing emission reduction units (ERUs) after 2012 in the transition period before countries take on second commitment period QELROs.

REPORT OF THE COMPLIANCE COMMITTEE:

Khalid Abuleif (Saudi Arabia), Co-Chair, Compliance Committee, presented the report of the Committee, noting that 2012 was the busiest year to date for the Committee’s enforcement branch and a “significant year” for the facilitative branch. He underscored the importance of consistency of reviews, noting that this results in fairness and generates confidence in reporting, review and compliance. Informal consultations will continue.

IPCC REPORT:

Rajendra Pachauri, IPCC Chair, updated parties on progress on preparation of the Fifth Assessment Report.

DATE AND VENUE OF FUTURE SESSIONS:

Poland offered to host COP 19 in Warsaw. A contact group was established to discuss venues for COP 20 and 21.

PROPOSALS FOR AMENDMENTS TO THE CONVENTION UNDER ARTICLE 15:

On its proposal to amend Convention Article 4 (Commitments), the RUSSIAN FEDERATION explained the need for periodic review of the countries listed in Annexes I and II. A contact group was established on this issue.

MATTERS RELATED TO FINANCE:

Report of the Work Programme On Long-Term Finance: Zaheer Fakir (South Africa) and Georg Børsting (Norway), Co-Chairs of the work programme on long-term finance, presented the workshop report on the work programme on long-term finance. The PHILIPPINES proposed establishing a contact group to draft a COP decision. Barbados, for AOSIS, suggested that work on long-term finance should focus on: scaling up finance; improving access to finance for developing countries; and ensuring a balance between adaptation and mitigation activities. INDIA said work on long-term finance should ensure consistency with CBDR and discussions in other bodies under the Convention. Parties will take up this issue in a contact group.

Standing Committee Report:

The PHILIPPINES highlighted gaps in the fulfilment of the Standing Committee’s mandate to be addressed under the AWG-LCA, such as on MRV of support provided to developing parties. Parties will take up this issue in a contact group.

GCF Report and GCF Guidance:

Zaheer Fakir and Ewen McDonald (Australia) GCF Chairs, introduced the GCF’s report to the COP. They highlighted that the decision to select Songdo, Republic of Korea, as the host city of the Fund, as a milestone for the operationalization of the Fund.

Barbados, for AOSIS, stressed that the COP should provide further guidance to the GCF Board on how to expedite the operationalization of the Fund and initiate an early and adequate replenishment process.

COLOMBIA, speaking for Chile, Costa Rica and Peru, with BOLIVIA, URUGUAY and TOGO, called for the provision of funds to facilitate the operationalization of the GCF. The REPUBLIC OF KOREA, as host of the GCF, stated that they will do their utmost to facilitate the establishment of the interim secretariat as soon as possible. Parties agreed to take up this issue in a contact group.

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Momentum for Change: Recognizing Climate Action on the Ground, Tuesday 27, Nov 2012

By: Christiana Figueres, Executive Secretary of the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC)

As delegates from around the world gather in Doha for the UN Climate Change Conference (COP 18/CMP 8), they will have to tackle significant political issues that remain to be resolved in the UNFCCC negotiation process. However, I hope they also keep in mind that action on the ground to address climate change is already taking place and we need to do a better job at recognizing such activities.

With Momentum for Change, the UN Climate Change Secretariat hopes to do its part to shine a light on successful activities which address climate change. Launched last year during the UN Climate Change Conference in Durban, South Africa with funding support from the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, Momentum for Change provides a platform to showcase activities from around the world that have been successful at either reducing greenhouse gas emissions or assisting communities to adapt to the consequences of climate change, while benefiting the urban poor.

This year an advisory panel made up by civil society experts, selected nine lighthouse activities, which highlight broad-ranging climate change actions that are already achieving tangible results, and encourage further change towards a low-carbon, climate-resilient future. These lighthouse activities particularly address how public-private partnerships can provide social and economic benefits to the urban poor, while effectively tackling climate change.

The nine activities demonstrate just this and more. They are:

Solar Sister, a door-to-door green energy social enterprise in Uganda;

The Ahmedabad bus rapid transit system in India, which created an integrated and accessible public transport system;

Organic waste compost in Nepalwhich is spearheaded by BioComp Nepal and the myclimate foundation which processes organic waste and turns it into compost that can be used by the local community in Kathmandu;

Energy efficiency in artisanal brick kilns in Peru, implemented by Swisscontact in cooperation and the myclimate foundation, which promotes cleaner-burning artisanal brick kilns;

Carbon For Water in Kenya, an initiative led by Vestergaard Frandsen in collaboration with the Ministry of Public Health and Sanitation in Kenya, which uses carbon financing from the voluntary carbon market to fund household level water purification;

Adaptation to coastal erosion in vulnerable areas, an Adaptation Fund-supported activity in Senegal that fights coastal erosion, implemented by the Centre de Suivi Ecologique (CSE);

Introduction of electric vehicles to Sri Lanka, an activity which pilots the use of  electric buses and rickshaws in Colombo with assistance from the UN Development Programme (UNDP);

Holistic approaches to community adaptation to climate change, a Namibia-based activity from Creative Entrepreneurs Solutions, Ergonomidesign and UNDP, that uses a six-point method to assist local communities in adapting to climate change;

Guangzhou bus rapid transit system in China, one of the largest integrated bus rapid transit systems in the world.

These Lighthouse Activities will be celebrated at an event in Doha on 4 December, featuring remarks by UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon. The following day, activity participants will be involved in a series of side events to discuss their activities. For more information of these activities go here.

Keeping the Momentum

However, the recognition of on the ground climate action does not end here. Momentum for Change has added two new pillars that will serve to expand focus given to climate action.

Momentum for Change: Women for Results is an initiative to showcase the active role that women play in addressing climate change. It will be implemented with funding support from the Rockefeller Foundation. Women are disproportionately impacted by climate change, as they are the most affected by climate change impacts, such as droughts, floods and other extreme weather events. Momentum for Change: Women for Results will showcase activities to inform governments, the private sector, civil society and the public at large about the crucial role of women in solving climate change.

Momentum for Change: Innovative Finance will recognize the crucial role that financing plays in climate change action. This initiative, which will be carried out in partnership with the World Economic Forum, will showcase successful public-private financing mechanisms and approaches that are already delivering climate-friendly investment.  It will inform investors, business, public finance agencies, governments and the media about the practical ways and means to enable a global shift to environmentally and economically sustainable growth.

Both of these pillars will be launched in events during the United Nations Climate Change Conference in Doha.

I hope that the 2012 lighthouse activities and the two new pillars under Momentum for Change, inform those attending this year’s UN Climate Change Conference in Doha on the significant climate action already taking place on the ground, while inspiring them to engage in constructive dialogue during the next two weeks.

Source>>

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DAY-II: Tuesday, 27 November 2012

[Source: UN Solution Exchange, India’s Climate and Water Community- http://www.solutionexchange.net.in/ ]

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On Tuesday, delegates met for the opening sessions of the AWG-KP, AWG-LCA and the ADP. The SBI plenary was also resumed. Participants heard opening statements from negotiating groups and gave preliminary consideration to the various agenda items under these bodies. In addition, contact groups and informal consultations began on a range of issues across the various bodies.

Ad-hoc Working Group (AWG)-Long-term Cooperative Action(LCA)

ü  OPENING STATEMENTS: Many developing countries highlighted the need to provide clarity on mid-term finance.

ü  The UMBRELLA GROUP urged transition to a full implementation phase of post-2012 undertakings. He emphasized that the fast-start finance commitment has been collectively surpassed.

ü  Cyprus, for the EU, on climate finance, said the EU will continue to provide support after 2012 and will work to scale up finance towards 2020.

ü  PERU, for Colombia, Chile, Costa Rica and Panama, said parties in Durban decided to bring the AWG-LCA to its operative end, which implies the need to define next steps for implementation and closure of the negotiation track.

ü  Parties’ views diverged on the AWG-LCA Chair’s text. CHINA, the PHILIPPINES, the ARAB GROUP and others, supported using the text as a basis for further work, with some noting that it reflected a wide range of views. The UMBRELLA GROUP, EIG, the EU, CANADA and others, opposed this.

ü  Some suggested starting work under the contact group and spin-off groups to look for commonalities. Responding to comments, Chair Tayeb noted that the overview text reflected the views of parties.

AWG-Kyoto Protocol (KP)

ü  OPENING STATEMENTS: Algeria, for the G-77/CHINA, suggested the following benchmarks for a successful outcome in Doha: an ambitious second commitment period under the Kyoto Protocol effective as of 1 January 2013; ambitious QELROs by Annex I parties; limited access to flexibility mechanisms by Annex I parties that have not adopted commitments for the second commitment period; and addressing carry-over of surplus AAUs.

ü  Cyprus, for the EU, highlighted: the EU’s immediate implementation of their second commitment period commitments regardless of other parties’ ratification timing; the need for broad participation and flexibility based on environmental integrity; and the need to resolve the issue of carry-over of surplus AAUs.

ü  Australia, for the UMBRELLA GROUP, emphasized that the second commitment period under the Kyoto Protocol needs to be implementable on 1 January 2013, for an eight-year period. He expressed concern that “the benefits of the Kyoto Protocol flexibility mechanisms are threatened here in Doha” and called for ensuring “broad access to these.”

ü  China, for BASIC, urged developed countries to raise their level of ambition in line with science and their historical responsibility, and suggested further discussions on ambition under the COP or CMP.

ü  Climate Action Now, on behalf of ENGOS, commended countries that are committing to the second commitment period, but denounced the level of commitments as “dangerously inadequate.”  She called for increased ambition, more environmentally robust flexibility mechanisms, and a ban on the carry-over of surplus AAUs.

ü  Friends of the Earth, speaking for CLIMATE JUSTICE NOW, said the Group would not collude in a “lie” that Doha has secured a second commitment period, if that agreement locks in an eight-year commitment period that will lead the world to disaster.

ü  The INDIGENOUS PEOPLES’ CONCLAVE called for the human rights, land rights, customary rights and traditional knowledge of indigenous peoples to be recognized, respected and incorporated into any new agreement.

Adhoc Working Group on Durban Platform  (ADP)  for Enhanced Action

ü  OPENING STATEMENTS: Algeria, for the G-77/CHINA, stressed that discussions under the ADP must be party-driven, fully inclusive and transparent, and that the outcome should be in accordance with equity and the CBDR principle.

ü  Egypt, for the ARAB GROUP, called for: agreement on results-based objectives; conformity with Convention principles; and consideration of mitigation, adaptation and means of implementation. Australia, for the UMBRELLA GROUP, called for the ADP to outline a clear plan for taking forward the work required to deliver its mandate.

ü  The EU stressed that for Doha to deliver a balanced outcome, work in the ADP must result in a decision that captures agreed next steps and provides political momentum for adopting an agreement in 2015. Switzerland, on behalf of the EIG, said a future agreement must be legally-binding, have global application, recognize differentiation and contain comparable and transparent targets.

ü  INDIGENOUS PEOPLES called for an overarching human rights-based approach that includes recognition of indigenous governance structures, traditional knowledge and technology. TUNGOs said all trade unions are hoping for a transition that will deliver sustainability and social justice in a safe climate. YOUTH suggested that equity is not only the most fair, but also the most effective pathway under the Convention.

ü  BINGOs called for protection of IPRs in a future agreement, noting that this would encourage investment and enhance business participation.

Subsidiary Body on Implementation (SBI)

ü  OPENING STATEMENTS: Many developing countries drew attention to the need to: operationalize international consultation and analysis (ICA) in a non-intrusive and non-punitive manner through the provision of adequate financial resources, and to provide support for the national adaptation plans of developing countries other than LDCs. Algeria, for the G-77/CHINA, called for enhancing the means of implementation to meet the additional reporting requirements established in Cancun.

ü  The EU observed that the fifth review of the financial mechanism is an opportunity to have a comprehensive overview of how the division of labor among the different operating entities could be enhanced. The EU and the UMBRELLA GROUP called for agreement on modalities and procedures for the technical experts for ICA. Many parties highlighted issues requiring agreement in Doha, including: loss and damage; a workplan for the Adaptation Committee; recommending to the COP for approval of the host of the Climate Technology Centre and Network (CTCN) and continuing consideration of the constitution of the Advisory Board.

ü  INDIA emphasized the need to address the issue of IPRs “in all its dimensions.”

ü  TUNGOs and GENDER emphasized that climate change responses should target vulnerable groups within countries.

ü  BINGOs said new channels for input from business and other observers have to be warranted as the Convention moves into implementation. INDIGENOUS PEOPLES called for a consultative technical body to assist UNFCCC negotiations. YOUTH called for moving beyond adaptation and also addressing compensation for loss and damage.

ü  MATTERS RELATING TO THE LDCs: Pepetua Latasi (Tuvalu) presented the report of the LDC Expert Group (LEG). Several parties welcomed the guidelines for national adaptation plans. The Gambia, for the LDCs, expressed concerns about the implementation of national adaptation plans, and stressed transparency and additionality of financial resources. Nicaragua, for SICA, proposed adopting a programme on education and training under Convention Article 6 and said priority should be given to the consideration of loss and damage over risk assessment. Informal consultations will be held.

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DAY-I: Monday, 26 November 2012

[Source: UN Solution Exchange, India’s Climate and Water Community- http://www.solutionexchange.net.in/ ]

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The 2012 UN Climate Change Conference opened in Doha, Qatar on 26 November 2012. The meeting will include the 18th session of the Conference of the Parties (COP 18) to the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) and the 8th session of the Conference of the Parties serving as the Meeting of the Parties to the Kyoto Protocol (CMP 8). The Conference will run from 26 November-7 December 2012.Five subsidiary bodies will also convene: the Subsidiary Body for Implementation (SBI), Subsidiary Body for Scientific and Technological Advice (SBSTA), Ad Hoc Working Group on Annex I Parties’ Further Commitments under the Kyoto Protocol (AWG-KP), Ad Hoc Working Group on Long-term Cooperative Action under the Convention (AWG-LCA) and Ad Hoc Working Group on the Durban Platform for Enhanced Action (ADP).

Key issues before CMP 8 are expected to include the adoption of amendments to the Kyoto Protocol for the second commitment period.

Highlights

  • COP 17 President Maite Nkoana-Mashabane, Minister of International Relations and Cooperation, South Africa, urged delegates to: adopt a second commitment period under the Kyoto Protocol; complete work under the AWG-LCA; and find appropriate space to undertake other work under the COP, subsidiary bodies or new institutions.
  • Algeria, for the G-77/China called for implementing the Durban balanced “package” by, inter alia: strengthening the Convention principles, in particular equity and common but differentiated responsibilities (CBDR), expressed concern over slow progress under the AWG-LCA, particularly on adaptation, financing and technology transfer, drawing attention to the finance gap from now to 2020.
  • Australia, on behalf of the Umbrella Group urged the conclusion of the AWG-LCA to allow implementation to begin and looked forward to progress toward an agreement applicable to all parties by 2020, while increasing ambition before 2020.
  • Cyprus, on behalf of the EU, outlined outcomes for Doha, including: progressing on a new agreement with legally-binding commitments by all parties by 2015 at the latest; enhancing pre-2020 mitigation ambition; and closing the AWG-LCA to streamline negotiations.
  • Egypt, on behalf of the Arab Group, highlighted Doha as a turning point in regional efforts to address climate change and underlined that developed countries have a historic responsibility to mitigate emissions and provide finance and technology, while developing countries’ responsibility is to combat poverty and ensure equitable access to sustainable development.
  • El Salvador, speaking on behalf of Argentina, the Philippines, India, Saudi Arabia, Egypt, Pakistan, Dominica, Bolivia, Cuba, Ecuador, Nicaragua, Venezuela, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Malaysia, Mali, Algeria, Iran, Kuwait, Sudan and Iraq, highlighted COP 18 as an important milestone for strengthening the multilateral climate regime under the principles of equity and CBDR.
  • Swaziland, for the African Group, highlighted, inter alia, the need to: work towards increasing the level of ambition; agree on global peaking of emissions; agree on mid-term finance; and clarify the application of the principles and provisions of the Convention and emphasized that a future agreement should be more than just a “mitigation deal.”
  • Gambia, for the LDCs, said a successful termination of the AWG-LCA requires agreement on comparable targets and common accounting rules to ensure transparency and coherence among developed countries.
  • New Zealand noted its intention to take on post-2012 commitments under the Convention track, observing that the Protocol covers less than 15% of global emissions and therefore cannot represent a common future.
  • India stressed that agriculture is a sensitive issue in developing countries and opposed producing negative impacts on peoples’ livelihoods in the pursuit of agriculture-related mitigation objectives.

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 Venues and transport

  • The massive programme to prepare Qatar National Convention Centre for COP18/CMP8 is complete.
  • A fleet of more than 400 vehicles has been prepared, and will be used to provide environmentally friendly transport for delegates and visitors.

  Visas – thousands of applications

  • With more than 10,000 visas have been applied for, and organisers are expecting about 17,000 to attend.

  Hotels and accommodation – a flood of bookings

  • Hotels in Doha have been inundated with reservations. For example, for December 4, the peak day of the Conference, 2,800 hotel rooms have already been booked.
  • About 70 hotels are playing their part by agreeing to offer discounts to delegates and visitors. An easy booking service, to access these deals and others provided by Qatar Airways, is at www.cop18.qa

  Outreach – connecting with civil society

  • COP18/CMP8 has been reaching out to non-governmental groups (NGOs) from civil society in Qatar, the region and the world to encourage them to get involved.
  • More than 7,000 members of NGOs will attend, representing environmental groups and those focusing on issues such as conservation, social development, youth and women’s issues.
  • Funding has been made available to Arab NGOs, who are active in their communities, to take part.
  • During the Conference “Hikma Hours” (wisdom hours) will be held daily, providing an opportunity for NGOs to promote their organisation and engage with delegates.

 Volunteers – residents line up to help

  • More than 2,500 residents of Qatar have volunteered to help at the Conference, and many of these will be selected to greet visitors at the airport, to work information kiosks in the city, as well as help with transport, accommodation and provide information on tourism.
  • Volunteers are currently being interviewed to understand the skills they have to offer, and establish where they can help. They will be trained in November, and will wear a distinctive uniform for the event.

Security – keeping it safe

  • The Ministry of Interior and Civil Defence force have established a comprehensive plan for the security of the event, which will be both extensive and unobtrusive. Security forces have planned for every eventuality, and will also provide support for all city events linked to the conference.

Media – promoting Qatar

  • About 1,500 journalists from Qatar, the region and the world will be in Doha for the conference, providing a golden opportunity for businesses, organisations and wider society to promote themselves to the world.
  • We have created an app, which will work on iPhone, iPod, and Android, providing up-to-the-minute news and information from the conference, and on events in Doha, as well as culture and tourism.
  • We also have a communications team, working in Arabic, English and French, reaching out to the media organisations of the world, engaging them and telling them about Qatar’s work on environmental issues and conservation.

  Legacy – beyond the Conference

  • Plans are already underway for legacy projects, after COP18/CMP8, to continue the good work that is being carried out. These are looking at projects in education, innovation, heritage and culture.

Conference Schedule

  • The official schedule for the UN Climate Change Conference COP18/CMP8 Doha is here.
  • The official schedule for side events and exhibits during COP18/CMP8 Doha can be found here.

 

 About CoP:

Since the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) entered into force in 1994, the Conference of the Parties (COP) to the UNFCCC has been meeting annually to assess progress in dealing with climate change. The COP is the “supreme body” of the Convention, its highest decision-making authority. The COP is an association of all the countries that are Parties to the Convention.

There are now 195 parties to the convention taking part in climate change negotiations. All parties to the UNFCCC are represented at the COP at which they review the implementation of the convention and any other legal instruments that the COP adopts and take decisions to promote the effective implementation of the convention.

Successive decisions taken by the COP make up a set of rules for practical and effective implementation of the convention. In 2010, governments agreed that emissions need to be reduced so that global temperature increases are limited to below 2 degrees Celsius.

The COP is assisted by two subsidiary bodies. The Subsidiary Body on Scientific and Technological Advice (SBSTA) links scientific, technical and technological assessments, the information provided by competent international bodies, and the policy-oriented needs of the COP. The Subsidiary Body for Implementation (SBI) was created to develop recommendations to assist the COP in reviewing and assessing implementation of the Convention and in preparing and implementing its decisions.

WHAT IS CMP?

The COP serving as the Meeting of the Parties to the Kyoto Protocol (CMP) meets annually, coinciding with the COP. States that are Parties to the Protocol are represented in the CMP, as well as other States, NGOs and UN agencies, who are allowed to participate as observers.

The CMP reviews the implementation of the Kyoto Protocol and takes decisions to promote its effective implementation.

The Kyoto Protocol was adopted in 1997 and legally binds developed countries to emission reduction targets. The protocol’s first commitment period started in 2008 and ends on December 31, 2012. A second commitment period will follow as the first one ends.

 COP/CMP PRESIDENCY

The Bureau of the COP consists of representatives from each of the five UN regions, as well as the Small Island Developing States (SIDS), and supports the COP through organisation of the COP’s sessions, provides advice regarding ongoing activities between sessions, and assists the Secretariat in its functions. The Bureau members include a President, seven Vice-Presidents, the Chairs of the subsidiary bodies, and a rapporteur. The office of the Conference president rotates annually between the five UN regional groups. South Africa held the COP17/CMP7 in 2011 and was COP/CMP President until the opening day of COP18/CMP8 in Doha.

The Asia-Pacific Group is the next host of the Conference of the Parties with COP18/CMP 8 taking place from November 26 to December 7, 2012 in Doha, Qatar.

Following the procedural rules of the conference, it is customary for the COP and CMP to elect as President a minister from the host country.  The President of COP18/CMP8 is His Excellency Abdullah Bin Hamad Al-Attiyah, Director of the Qatar Administrative Control and Transparency Authority.

H.E. Al-Attiyah brings significant experience to the role. Prior to holding the current office, H.E. Al-Attiyah’s career of service to Qatar has included the offices of Deputy Prime Minister, Minister of Energy and Industry, and Minister of Water and Electricity.

Visitors to UN conference ‘will be welcomed with open arms’

Arab hospitality is famous the world over for being warm and welcoming. Nick Bryk, an expat who has spent many years in the Middle East, describes what visitors to Qatar should expect from this wonderfully congenial country and its friendly people.

As an expat living and working in Qatar for the past eight years, in addition to travelling extensively, particular throughout the Middle East, I understand and appreciate how first-timers feel when they come to Qatar. I can say without hesitation that you will be welcomed with open arms by our Qatari hosts from the moment you arrive.

As a descendant of European heritage, with a childhood filled with memories of countless friends and guests visiting our home, I feel that Arab hospitality is unsurpassed. I could give numerous examples, but the story that most resonates in my memory goes back to the first few weeks at the office we worked at in 2005. With a team of 15, a mixture of locals and expats, most experiencing Arabic culture for the first time, one of our Qatari colleagues, Hussain Al Abdulla, opened his home and his heart to our team.

In an effort to make us feel uniquely “at home”, Hussain arranged for his wife’s tailor to come into the office for several days to fit the men in our group with thobes (the local dress for men) and abayas (the local dress for women). Once fitted, we were invited to a traditional Arabic evening with Hussain and his family at their home.

With eager anticipation, we arrived in our local dress ready to experience the famous Arab hospitality we had heard so much about. Upon arrival we were divided into the two groups, the men proceeded to the Majlis, a salon for guests, and the women proceeded to the women’s Majlis. Offered our choice of hot beverages (tea, coffee or karak – milk tea) and snacks, we settled in for some light banter and a mock fashion show to display our new threads, while enough food to feed an army was being prepared.

Once dinner was ready, we washed our hands and made our way to the eating area, where the food was laid out on the floor, and we were invited to choose a spot on the floor to sit. As with any traditional Arabic meal, we were offered the option of using cutlery or our right hand to eat. Eager to experience all things Arabic, most chose to use their hand.

With an array of food – hummus, tabouleh, baba ghannouj, mashriq (like pizza bread), falafels, bryani (lamb and rice), harees (ground wheat & chicken), madrooba (mixture of chicken, tomatoes, onions, spices ground up like baby food but blissful to eat) and more – we ate until we were almost unable to move. But as we soon learnt, you always must save room for the wonderful Arabic sweets that are found aplenty everywhere you go, from baklawa, nammora, qatayef and of course dates and umm ali, which is like a bread pudding made with milk, bread, raisins and nuts.

After dinner, we made our way back to the Majlis and were treated to a session of bukhoor. Bukhoor is scented woodchips, burnt in incense burners, which produce a rich smoke that is used to make a room or home smell nice and is also used to provide fragrance to the clothes you are wearing. With the smell of sandalwood in the air, we were treated to after-dinner tea, dates and more sweets.

All in all, it was a wonderful evening and opened our eyes and calmed whatever fears or uncertainty we had about settling into Doha, into the community and into Arabic culture, which we learnt first-hand is amazing, welcoming, warm and very open to expatriates.

So whether this is your first time to Qatar or a return visit, smile, be open to new experiences and enjoy the warmth and hospitality that I am sure you will experience during your stay.

A carbon neutral conference

The COP18/CMP8 conference is being delivered in line with international standards of sustainability for events. We have built on existing best practice to leave a legacy in Qatar. COP18/CMP8 will be the largest carbon neutral event to be held in Qatar.

Strategy to minimise footprint and reduce carbon emissions from energy and water use 

We have formed a partnership with Green Gulf to monitor carbon emissions from COP18/CMP8, and to ensure that these are offset in line with the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) guidelines and best practice industry standards. This includes emissions resulting from energy and water use at the venues; transport of participants and equipment; accommodation; and catering. A full carbon footprint report will be published after the conference.

Qatar National Convention Centre was the first building of its kind to be built to the gold certification standard of the US Green Building Council’s Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design standard. The walls, roof and windows are designed to provide maximum insulation. The windows allow maximum natural lighting without solar gain, which would increase the need for cooling. Skylights built into exhibition halls bring in natural light. The cooling system is able to adapt to periods of low activity in each hall by reducing airflow. Solar panels installed on the roof provide 12.5 per cent of the energy used in the centre each year.

The QNCC also has water-efficiency measures, including reduced flow fixtures on taps and lavatories, and grey water recycling for irrigation. All exhibitors have been asked to avoid unnecessary energy use on their stands, to use LED lighting where possible, and to turn off equipment when not in use.

Aim of the conference is to reduce carbon emissions from transport, waste and catering

More than 400 buses will be provided for participants to travel to the QNCC and Doha Exhibition Centre, and to visit other sights and venues around the city. Each bus will replace up to 40 cars, so they will not only reduce congestion, but also carbon emissions. A proportion of the buses will use clean fuels including GTL diesel and CNG, which will help to reduce air pollution from the fleet.

Travel to and from Qatar will form the major part of the carbon footprint of the conference. Qatar Airways has one of the youngest and most efficient aircraft fleets in the world. Where possible, we have sought to ship materials used for the conference into Qatar by sea or by road.

Qatar is proud to partner with UNFCCC to make COP18/CMP8 the first major UN event to use the Paper Smart system. We intend to reduce the volume of paper used by the UNFCCC during the conference by half, by providing documentation in electronic format, and running a ‘print on demand’ service at QNCC. All participating organisations and exhibitors have been encouraged to restrict the use of printed material.

To reduce plastic waste, water dispensers have been provided at all venues instead of individual bottles of water, and participants are encouraged to refill their bottles from these.

We are working with suppliers to ensure that the materials and items used at the conference are disposed of responsibly, through reuse, donation to charitable organisations, recycling, and composting or energy recovery. All paper and plastic waste from QNCC and the Qatar Sustainability Expo will be collected for recycling at facilities within Qatar.

In common with other dry land nations, Qatar imports a significant proportion of its food. To reduce food miles, we have encouraged caterers to source food grown locally or within the region where possible. We have also encouraged them to use fish and other ingredients from sustainable sources, avoiding endangered species such as bluefin tuna.

All the disposable serviceware at QNCC is recyclable and made from sustainable materials. Where possible, food packaging is also made from recyclable materials.

Green principles in hotels and homes

We have raised awareness of the actions that hotels can take to improve their environmental credentials, including holding a briefing session for participating hotels. We also promote the Green Hotels Interest Group, an initiative of Qatar Green Building Council, which brings hotel managers together to share ideas and raise awareness of environmental best practice.http://www.qatargbc.org/media-center/eventspage/events_details?item=19

As well as information about the conference, our Information Pod volunteers provide tips on how to lead a more green lifestyle to residents. All of the materials used to make the pods will be recycled after the conference.

The Qatar Sustainability Expo at Doha Exhibition Centre, open from November 26 to December 7, includes free educational presentations and entertainment for families, and provides opportunities to get involved with environmental initiatives and volunteering in Qatar.

There is a range of daily events around the city on the theme of environmental awareness, from educational talks at mosques to storytelling sessions, film screenings and tours.

Source: CoP18 web

On Saturday, delegates met in contact groups, informal consultations and other meetings of the Convention and Protocol bodies throughout the day. In the evening, the closing plenaries of the SBs convened.

SBI

ELECTION OF OFFICERS: SBI Chair Chruszczow reported that consultations on nominations for the Vice-Chair and Rapporteur are still ongoing. He proposed, and parties agreed, that the SBI request the COP to elect these officers at the COP closing plenary on 7 December, while the current Vice-Chair and Rapporteur will continue to serve until their replacements are elected.

PROTOCOL ARTICLES 3.14 AND 2.3; FORUM AND WORK PROGRAMME ON THE IMPACT OF THE IMPLEMENTATION OF RESPONSE MEASURES; AND PROGRESS ON THE IMPLEMENTATION OF DECISION 1/CP.10: Parties adopted draft conclusions (FCCC/SBI/2012/L.34) on response measures. The SBI agreed to reflect in the meeting report that joint SBI/SBSTA consultations on Protocol Articles 3.14 and 2.3 had not been concluded at this session and will continue at the next session. They also agreed that the SBI will continue consideration of decision 1/CP.10 at the next session.

CTCN ARRANGEMENTS: Chair Chruszczow highlighted that negotiations are close to agreement. The  SBI adopted conclusions (FCCC/SBI/2012/L.54) agreeing to take the draft decision forward for COP consideration and finalization.

TEC: On the report of the TEC, INDIA requested clarification on how the COP would consider outstanding text forwarded by the SBI. Chair Chruszczow responded that he would raise the issue with the COP President and that it is up to the COP to decide how to address bracketed text, on the advice of the President. GEORGIA stated that further work is required for the text to more fully reflect parties’ views. The SBI adopted conclusions (FCCC/SBI/2012/L.51) and forwarded a draft decision for consideration to the COP.

Noting that discussions on the following items had not yielded agreement, the SBI adopted the conclusions and agreed to transmit the draft decisions to the COP for consideration and finalization:

  • ICA (FCCC/SBI/2012/L.50);
  • CGE (FCCC/SBI/2012/L.53);
  • Capacity building under the Convention (FCCC/SBI/2012/L.42);
  • National adaptation plans (FCCC/SBI/2012/L.41); and
  • Loss and damage (FCCC/SBI/2012/L.44).

OTHER SBI AGENDA ITEMS: The SBI adopted draft conclusions on the following agenda items, with little or no further discussion:

  • Annual compilation and accounting report for Annex B parties under the Protocol for 2012 (FCCC/SBI/2012/L.28);
  • Review of the commitment period reserve (FCCC/SBI/2012/L.29);
  • International transaction log (FCCC/SBI/2012/L.30);
  • LDC matters (FCCC/SBI/2012/L.35);
  • Technology transfer (FCCC/SBI/2012/L.37);
  • Compliance (FCCC/SBI/2012/L.40);
  • Appeals against the CDM Executive Board decisions (FCCC/SBI/2012/L.43); and
  • Non Annex I Parties’ national communications (FCCC/SBI/2012/L.52).

The SBI also adopted draft conclusions and recommended a draft COP decision on each of the following items:

  • Report of the Adaptation Committee (joint SBI/SBSTA conclusions and decision (FCCC/SBSTA/2012/L.22-FCCC/SBI/2012/L.33);
  • Prototype of the NAMA registry (FCCC/SBI/2012/L.39);
  • Further guidance to the LDC Fund (FCCC/SBI/2012/L.49);
  • GEF report (FCCC/SBI/2012/L.48);
  • Article 6 of the Convention (FCCC/SBI/2012/L.47);
  • Review of the financial mechanism (FCCC/SBI/2012/L.45); and
  • Other matters: Enhancing participation of women in UNFCCC bodies (FCCC/SBI/2012/L.36).

On administrative, financial and institutional matters, the SBI adopted draft conclusions and recommended draft decisions to the COP and the CMP for adoption (FCCC/SBI/2012/L.31 and 32). INDIA requested that the Secretariat prepare an explanatory note on activities financed under the supplementary and core budgets, clarifying under which budget the provision of funds for ICA and biennial update reports would be considered.

On the initial review of the Adaptation Fund, the SBI adopted conclusions (FCCC/SBI/2012/L.46) and recommended a draft decision to the CMP for adoption.

On capacity building under the Protocol, the SBI adopted conclusions (FCCC/SBI/2012/L.38) and recommended a draft decision to the CMP for adoption.

CLOSE OF THE SESSION: The SBI adopted its report (FCCC/SBI/2012/L.27). In their closing remarks, many parties welcomed the establishment of the Doha Work Programme on Article 6 of the Convention and urged for the establishment of a mechanism for loss and damage in Doha. SBI Chair Chruszczow thanked participants and closed the SBI 37 at 2:32 am.

SBSTA

EMISSIONS FROM FUEL USED FOR INTERNATIONAL AVIATION AND MARITIME TRANSPORT: The SBSTA took note of the information contained in the progress reports of ICAO and IMO, and invited these organizations to continue to report on this issue. This will be reflected in the report of the meeting.

METHODOLOGICAL ISSUES RELATING TO HCFC-22 AND HFC-23: The SBSTA agreed to continue discussions of this issue at SBSTA 38. This will be reflected in the report of the meeting.

PROTOCOL ARTICLES 2.3 AND 3.14 (ADVERSE IMPACTS): The SBSTA was not able to conclude consultations on how to address Protocol Articles 2.3 and 3.14. The report of the session will reflect that the SBSTA and SBI will continue these consultations at SB38.

ISSUES RELATING TO AGRICULTURE: Chair Muyungi reported that the SBSTA had been unable to conclude consideration of this agenda item, and informed parties that he would report this to the COP President. INDIA opposed this, stating that parties had not authorized the SBSTA Chair to make this report back to the COP President. He suggested that the SBSTA should adopt a decision stating that the parties could not conclude discussion of this item and would continue discussions at the next SBSTA session.

URUGUAY said SBSTA should focus on food production and the technical aspects of agriculture, highlighting that emissions from agriculture-related activities in developing countries would need to increase because of the need for increased food production.

BANGLADESH, BRAZIL, the GAMBIA, ARGENTINA, NICARAGUA and CUBA supported deferring the agenda issue to the next SBSTA session. VENEZUELA and others said the issue is of a technical nature and therefore should not be sent to the COP. ETHIOPIA said the COP in Durban mandated the SBSTA to adopt a decision on agriculture at COP 18 and that the COP should therefore decide if consideration of the issue can continue at the next SBSTA session. The EU said the work under this item should progress as much as possible in Doha.

Chair Muyungi clarified that he will report to the COP President that the SBSTA will consider this issue at the next SBSTA session and, after further interventions by parties, ruled that he would report to the COP that no consensus was achieved on the issue and that the SBSTA will consider the issue at its next session. Supporting other developing countries, BOLIVIA highlighted that agriculture has to be addressed in the context of adaptation, poverty eradication and food security.

REDD+: SBSTA Chair Muyungi reported lack of agreement on the issues under this agenda item. Parties adopted conclusions (FCCC/SBSTA/2012/L.31), which provide that the issue will be further taken up at SBSTA 38, with the aim of completing work at SBSTA 39. Saying that in Cancun the COP decided that REDD+ should be fully measured, reported and verified, NORWAY expressed concern at the lack of agreement on MRV, noting the issue is key for environmental integrity. She expressed willingness to continue work in Doha to arrive at a decision on this issue.

BRAZIL, ARGENTINA, INDIA, CUBA, VENEZUELA and CHINA expressed support for continuing consideration of the issue at SBSTA 38. The US, for Australia, Canada, Japan, New Zealand, Norway and Russia, with the EU, supported finding common ground on the issue in Doha, emphasizing MRV. COLOMBIA supported further work in Doha to arrive at a decision.

SBSTA Chair Muyungi reiterated that according to the adopted conclusions and in accordance with rule 26 of the draft rules of procedure, the issue will be taken up at SBSTA 38.

TECHNOLOGY TRANSFER: The SBSTA adopted conclusions (FCCC/SBSTA/2012/L.32), as amended. The SBSTA agreed that the matter would be transmitted to the COP for consideration and finalization.

COMMON TABULAR FORMAT FOR THE UNFCCC BIENNIAL REPORTING GUIDELINES FOR DEVELOPED COUNTRIES: Noting that discussions on this item had not yielded an agreement, the SBSTA agreed to transmit the draft decision to the COP for consideration and finalization.

IMPLICATIONS OF IMPLEMENTATION OF DECISIONS 2-5/CMP. 7: Noting that discussions on this item had not yielded agreement, the SBSTA agreed to transmit the draft decision to the CMP for consideration and finalization.

OTHER SBSTA AGENDA ITEMS: The SBSTA adopted draft conclusions on the following agenda items, with little or no further discussion:

  • Research and systematic observation (FCCC/SBSTA/2012/L.25 & Add.1);
  • Nairobi work programme on impacts, vulnerability and adaptation to climate change (FCCC/SBSTA/2012/L.26);
  • Forum and work programme on the impact of the implementation of response measures (FCCC/SBSTA/2012/L.23);
  • General guidelines on domestic MRV of domestic NAMAs (FCCC/SBSTA/2012/L.24);
  • LULUCF (FCCC/SBSTA/2012/L.30);
  • Work programme on the revision of the guidelines for the review of developing country biennial reports and national communications, including national inventory reviews (FCCC/SBSTA/2012/L.28); and
  • Carbon capture and storage as CDM project activities (FCCC/SBSTA/2012/L.21).

The SBSTA also adopted draft conclusions and recommended a draft COP decision on each of the following items:

  • Report of the Adaptation Committee (joint SBI/SBSTA conclusions and decision – FCCC/SBSTA/2012/L.22-FCCC/SBI/2012/L.33); and
  • Other matters: activities implemented jointly under the pilot phase (FCCC/SBSTA/2012/L.27).

CLOSE OF THE SESSION: SBSTA 37 adopted its report (FCCC/SBSTA/2012/L.20). Parties made closing statements. SBSTA Chair Muyungi thanked participants for their dedication and closed SBSTA 37 at 3:04 am.

CONTACT GROUPS AND INFORMAL CONSULTATIONS

ADP:Workstream 1: Post-2020 regime: During the morning informal consultations, parties presented their views on the way forward. They supported the Co-Chairs’ proposal to produce a summary note on the Doha roundtable discussions under the two workstreams and draft text by Sunday, based on parties’ inputs.

Several parties called for a high-level decision in Doha demonstrating commitment to a legally-binding agreement by 2015. A number of parties stressed that the absence of robust and ambitious outcomes under the AWG-KP and AWG-LCA would set a “dangerous” precedent for the ADP.

Many parties requested an ADP meeting during the first quarter of 2013 to discuss the way forward, with subsequent meetings focusing on substance. They also encouraged the Co-Chairs to prepare a schedule of meetings for 2013. Acknowledging the value of written submissions, several parties also supported face-to-face discussions in a roundtable format.

Many parties supported keeping the two workstreams distinct. One group of countries noted that Workstream 1 is still in the conceptual rather than specific content phase, with another party emphasizing the value of conceptual discussions in building convergence.

ADP Workstream 2: Ways to bridge the ambition gap: During informal consultations, many parties focused their interventions on the planning of work for 2013 and beyond, as well as on ways to engage ministers and bridge the ambition gap. Many parties supported an additional session in the first quarter of 2013 and called for a timetable for 2013, with one calling for defining “deliverable milestones that can serve as benchmarks of progress.” Others emphasized identifying a range of options for closing the pre-2020 ambition gap, noting that any decision should include cost-effective policies and measures, and means for implementing them.

Many developed countries highlighted the need to understand: the barriers preventing some parties from coming forward with their pledges; and the effects that complementary initiatives have on closing the ambition gap. In response, a party proposed calling for national submissions on conditions for raising ambition. Many supported the preparation of a summary paper by the Co-Chairs capturing parties’ views. Some favored convening a resumed session in Bonn to continue the work started in Doha.

Parties supported multiple modalities for working in 2013, with meetings and workshops at different levels and involving multiple stakeholders, including parties, international organizations, the private sector and the scientific community. This, many agreed, could increase ambition and expand work already undertaken. The Co-Chairs will produce draft text by Sunday. Informal consultations will continue on Monday.

AWG-LCA: Stocktaking Plenary: AWG-LCA Chair Aysar Tayeb and several spin-off group facilitators reported on progress achieved during the week. On shared vision and on countries whose special circumstances have been recognized by the COP, Facilitator Zou Ji (China), and Chair Tayeb, respectively, reported that divergent views remain and further work is needed.

On developed country mitigation, Facilitator Andrej Kranjc (Slovenia), reported agreement on some elements, such as the need for further work to be carried out after the closure of the AWG-LCA, particularly on the clarification of pledges. He highlighted parties’ submissions, noting that a facilitator’s note will be prepared. On developing country mitigation, Facilitator Gary Theseira (Malaysia), reported that a facilitator’s note will be prepared, outlining elements of agreement, as well as matters that need further work.

On various approaches, Facilitator Alexa Klesysteuber (Chile), reported positive progress and constructive discussions on the framework for various approaches and the new market mechanism, although divergence remains on both issues and the relationship between them. She said a facilitator’s note was prepared based on submissions and discussions. On Review, Facilitator Gertraud Wollansky (Austria), reported progress on clarifying options, as well as divergent views on the establishment of an expert group and the scope of the Review.

On sectoral approaches, Chair Tayeb said a facilitator’s note was prepared based on exchanges and informal meetings, but highlighted that the text has not been approved by parties to be used as a basis for negotiations. On REDD+, Chair Tayeb reported that the facilitator was requested by parties to work on text that can take work forward. On EITs, Chair Tayeb said that progress was reflected in text that enjoys agreement by parties engaged in the discussions. Chair Tayeb reported divergent views on the need for further decisions on issues addressed under the AWG-LCA Chair’s informal consultations, namely adaptation, technology, finance, response measures and capacity building. He said views diverge on, inter alia: unilateral trade measures; further guidance regarding national adaptation plans; economic diversification; relationship between the CTCN and the TEC; technology and IPRs; mid-term finance for the 2012-2020 period; and the need for a work programme for capacity building.

AWG-LCA Chair Tayeb said he intended to convene open-ended informal consultations on the AWG-LCA agreed outcome starting Monday, focusing on how the last pieces of the AWG-LCA work can come together to fulfill its mandate. He said the proposal would allow parties to identify some of the elements of a more political nature and require political engagement by the ministers.

The US requested clarification on the status of the notes produced under the different spin-off groups. BOLIVIA said the draft text on various approaches did not reflect his country’s proposal, submitted jointly by 21 countries, and only focused on market mechanisms.

Some countries expressed support for the proposed way forward. Switzerland, for the EIG, suggested parties could work on the issues where agreement is possible and decide whether text is necessary for other issues. SINGAPORE asked how discussions would be organized in the open-ended informal consultations. The EU stated that the group should focus on the issues prioritized in Durban. CUBA, supported by ECUADOR, proposed that the Chair prepare draft text for issues where parties are not able to come up with text. MEXICO supported a model that allows broader conversations while enabling spin-off groups to continue their work.

Chair Tayeb explained that all the informal notes prepared by the spin-off groups are based on informal consultations and need to be brought to the contact group for endorsement. He added that none of the informal notes at this stage represent consensus. He said open-ended informal consultations would begin with a broad overview of the AWG-LCA issues before starting on substantive work. Chair Tayeb indicated that where work under the spin-off  groups can proceed in parallel, it would. Noting the challenges ahead, he expressed confidence that the AWG-LCA would conclude its work successfully.

AWG-KP: Matters relating to the Second Commitment Period: During afternoon informal consultations, discussions focused on a new version of the draft CMP decision on amendments to the Kyoto Protocol. Parties discussed the text paragraph-by-paragraph, trying to streamline the options and remove brackets. Divergence remained in particular on the issue of how to reflect the urgency of ratifying the amendments, with several developed countries objecting to the imposition of a time limit for adopting the amendments, and several developing countries asserting the importance of having such a time limit.

A revised version of the AWG-KP Chair’s text incorporating discussions and proposals made so far will be prepared. Consultations will continue.

IN THE CORRIDORS

The first week of negotiations culminated in a long drawn-out closure, as the SBs concluded their work in the early hours of Sunday morning; drawing clear lines between parties’ positions, but also finding what one delegate called “overlaps in comfort zones.” The SB plenaries convened late, and in one case suspended a number of times, to allow delegates “last chance conversations” on text.

Meanwhile, in the afternoon, the ADP Co-Chairs’ special event to further engage observers in the work of ADP was marked with an exceptional turnout, with NGOs representing “all shades of grey.” “If only parties could make interventions that are so concise and to the point,” marveled one delegate. During the event, Professor Daniel Bodansky suggested options for an outcome for the ADP in Doha, outlining three legal options: a contractual, a facilitative and a multi-track approach. Professor Jiahua Pan elaborated on the idea of a nexus for sustainability stressing the inter-linkages between energy, climate, water, and food security.

With only five negotiating days remaining, many began to wonder if Doha would actually be able to deliver. One developed country negotiator complained “Durban and Cancun were complicated; all we have to do here is to close the AWG-LCA, agree on a second commitment period and send a signal on the ADP. There are certain parties who are making this COP much more complicated than it needs to be.” As ministers begin to arrive, it remains to be seen what will unfold during the week ahead.

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