Climate Expert: Climate variability refers to the variations in the mean state of the climate. Variations are per se a natural feature of a climate system, but recent trends show a massive increase in global mean temperature and a linkage between temperature increase and CO2 concentration in the atmosphere.
And as data continue to pile up, evidence grows that human-induced emissions of greenhouse gases are the main cause of the global warming observed over the past century; the average global surface temperature increased by about 0.8 °C in the last 100 years, with about two thirds of the increase occurring over just the last three decades.
Source: NASA Past temperature changes 2000 – 2009; Reference period:1951 – 1980
As a matter of fact, climate change is already happening. While for a specific weather event it is difficult to determine the exact extent to which climate change can be held responsible, the trend is clear: the number of extreme weather events is increasing.
While improvements in reporting systems have contributed to a higher recording of extreme weather events, this cannot explain the vast increase in both quantity and quality. Whether the current weather extremes are caused or intensified by climate change is uncertain, but there is considerable evidence indicating that climate change is involved to some extent: Climate change comes with changes in the nature and frequency of extreme weather events. Changes in the mean must have consequences for the intensity of extremes. Therefore, the recently observed series of extreme weather events must have been influenced by the higher average temperatures. This implies that at least part of the damage caused by weather extremes is due to human-induced climate change. For example, climate change is often said to have contributed to the massive 2010 summer flooding in Pakistan which killed 1,500 people and left 20 million homeless.
It’s your turn: What impacts did you experience in the past?
Think about weather-related events of the past which influenced your business. What were the resulting disadvantages or potential benefits of them? What measures did you take to ensure your business run smoothly?
This exercise may help you in identifying potential countermeasures which have already proven successful
Current Climate: Climate Zones of India
The climate of India shows an extraordinary variety. This is reflected in different climatic regions, ranging from tropical in the south to moderate and alpine in the Himalayan north where some regions receive continuous snowfall during the winter season. India is also characterised by strong temperature variations in different seasons ranging from a mean temperature of about 10°C in winter to about 32°C in the summer season.
The nation’s climate is strongly influenced by the Himalayas in the north and the Thar Desert in the northwest. The Himalayas act as a barrier to colder winds from Central Asia keeping the bulk of the Indian subcontinent warmer than most locations at similar latitudes.
The overall land areas in the north of the country have a continental climate with severe summer conditions and cold winters with temperatures around the freezing point. In contrast, the coastal regions of the country offer constant warmth with frequent precipitation.
The rainfall pattern roughly reflects the different climate zones of the country, which vary from humid in the northeast to arid in Rajasthan. The country is influenced by two seasons of rains, accompanied by seasonal reversal of winds from January to July. Nevertheless, there is a large variation in the amounts of rainfall at different locations. 75 percent of the annual rainfall is received during a four months period between June and September, the monsoon season. Variability in the onset, withdrawal and quantum of rainfall during the monsoon season has profound impacts on water resources, power generation, agriculture, economics and ecosystems in the country.
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Started in year 2010, ‘Climate Himalaya’ initiative has been working on the mountain and climate related issues in the Himalayan region of South Asia. In the last two years this knowledge sharing portal has become one of the important references for the governments, research institutions, civil society groups and international agencies, those have work and interest in Himalayas. The Climate Himalaya team innovates on knowledge sharing, capacity building and climatic adaptation aspects in its focus countries like Bhutan, India, Nepal and Pakistan. Climate Himalaya’s thematic areas of work are mountain ecosystem, water, forest and livelihood. Read>>